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Mol. Cells 2010; 30(5): 409-425

Published online November 30, 2010

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10059-010-0141-9

© The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology

Phylogenetic Relationships of True Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) Inferred from COI, 16S rRNA and EF-1α Sequences

Man Il Kim, Xinlong Wan, Min Jee Kim, Heon Cheon Jeong1, Neung-Ho Ahn2, Ki-Gyoung Kim2,
Yeon Soo Han, and Iksoo Kim*

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Korea, 1Insect Research Institute of Hampyeong, Chonnam 525-811, Korea, 2Biological Resources Research Department, National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon 404-708, Korea

Correspondence to : *Correspondence: ikkim81@chonnam.ac.kr

Received: March 9, 2010; Revised: June 26, 2010; Accepted: August 30, 2010

Abstract

The molecular phylogenetic relationships among true butterfly families (superfamily Papilionoidea) have been a matter of substantial controversy; this debate has led to several competing hypotheses. Two of the most compel-ling of those hypotheses involve the relationships of (Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae) + (Pieridae + Papilionidae) and (((Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae) + Pieridae) + Papilioni-dae). In this study, approximately 3,500 nucleotide se-quences from cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA), and elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) were sequenced from 83 species belonging to four true butterfly families, along with those of three outgroup species belonging to three lepidopteran superfamilies. These sequences were subjected to phylogenetic reconstruction via Bayesian Inference (BI), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Maximum Parsimony (MP) algorithms. The monophyletic Pieridae and monophyletic Papilionidae evidenced good recovery in all analyses, but in some analyses, the monophylies of the Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae were hampered by the inclusion of single species of the lycaenid subfamily Miletinae and the nymphalid subfamily Danainae. Excluding those singletons, all phylogenetic analyses among the four true butterfly families clearly identified the Nymphalidae as the sister to the Lycaenidae and identified this group as a sister to the Pieridae, with the Papilionidae identified as the most basal linage to the true butterfly, thus supporting the hypothesis: (Papilionidae + (Pieridae + (Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae))).

Keywords 16S rRNA, COI, EF-1α, Lepidoptera, molecular phylogeny, true butterflies

Article

Research Article

Mol. Cells 2010; 30(5): 409-425

Published online November 30, 2010 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10059-010-0141-9

Copyright © The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology.

Phylogenetic Relationships of True Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) Inferred from COI, 16S rRNA and EF-1α Sequences

Man Il Kim, Xinlong Wan, Min Jee Kim, Heon Cheon Jeong1, Neung-Ho Ahn2, Ki-Gyoung Kim2,
Yeon Soo Han, and Iksoo Kim*

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Korea, 1Insect Research Institute of Hampyeong, Chonnam 525-811, Korea, 2Biological Resources Research Department, National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon 404-708, Korea

Correspondence to:*Correspondence: ikkim81@chonnam.ac.kr

Received: March 9, 2010; Revised: June 26, 2010; Accepted: August 30, 2010

Abstract

The molecular phylogenetic relationships among true butterfly families (superfamily Papilionoidea) have been a matter of substantial controversy; this debate has led to several competing hypotheses. Two of the most compel-ling of those hypotheses involve the relationships of (Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae) + (Pieridae + Papilionidae) and (((Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae) + Pieridae) + Papilioni-dae). In this study, approximately 3,500 nucleotide se-quences from cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA), and elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) were sequenced from 83 species belonging to four true butterfly families, along with those of three outgroup species belonging to three lepidopteran superfamilies. These sequences were subjected to phylogenetic reconstruction via Bayesian Inference (BI), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Maximum Parsimony (MP) algorithms. The monophyletic Pieridae and monophyletic Papilionidae evidenced good recovery in all analyses, but in some analyses, the monophylies of the Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae were hampered by the inclusion of single species of the lycaenid subfamily Miletinae and the nymphalid subfamily Danainae. Excluding those singletons, all phylogenetic analyses among the four true butterfly families clearly identified the Nymphalidae as the sister to the Lycaenidae and identified this group as a sister to the Pieridae, with the Papilionidae identified as the most basal linage to the true butterfly, thus supporting the hypothesis: (Papilionidae + (Pieridae + (Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae))).

Keywords: 16S rRNA, COI, EF-1α, Lepidoptera, molecular phylogeny, true butterflies

Mol. Cells
Nov 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.11, pp. 763~867
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