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Mol. Cells 2009; 28(6): 501-507

Published online December 31, 2009

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10059-009-0193-x

© The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology

Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Learn-ing-Related Synaptic Plasticity

Valentina Mercaldo, Giannina Descalzi, and Min Zhuo

Received: December 7, 2009; Accepted: December 9, 2009

Abstract

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a lack of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) due to silencing of the Fmr1 gene. As an RNA binding protein, FMRP is thought to contribute to synaptic plasticity by regulating plasticity-related protein synthesis and other signaling pathways. Previous studies have mostly focused on the roles of FMRP within the hippocampus - a key structure for spatial memory. However, recent studies indicate that FMRP may have a more general contribution to brain functions, including synaptic plasticity and modulation within the prefrontal cortex. In this brief review, we will focus on recent studies reported in the prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We hypothesize that alterations in ACC-related plasticity and synaptic modulation may contribute to various forms of cognitive deficits asso-ciated with FXS.

Keywords anterior cingulate cortex, dopamine, fragile X mental retardation, long-term potentiation, memory, prefrontal cortex

Article

Minireview

Mol. Cells 2009; 28(6): 501-507

Published online December 31, 2009 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10059-009-0193-x

Copyright © The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology.

Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Learn-ing-Related Synaptic Plasticity

Valentina Mercaldo, Giannina Descalzi, and Min Zhuo

Received: December 7, 2009; Accepted: December 9, 2009

Abstract

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a lack of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) due to silencing of the Fmr1 gene. As an RNA binding protein, FMRP is thought to contribute to synaptic plasticity by regulating plasticity-related protein synthesis and other signaling pathways. Previous studies have mostly focused on the roles of FMRP within the hippocampus - a key structure for spatial memory. However, recent studies indicate that FMRP may have a more general contribution to brain functions, including synaptic plasticity and modulation within the prefrontal cortex. In this brief review, we will focus on recent studies reported in the prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We hypothesize that alterations in ACC-related plasticity and synaptic modulation may contribute to various forms of cognitive deficits asso-ciated with FXS.

Keywords: anterior cingulate cortex, dopamine, fragile X mental retardation, long-term potentiation, memory, prefrontal cortex

Mol. Cells
Dec 31, 2021 Vol.44 No.12, pp. 861~919
COVER PICTURE
Structure of the fly peripheral neurons in the fly head. Flies have basic sensory organs including eyes for vision, antennae and maxillary palps for olfaction, and proboscis (magenta) for gustation which can be labelled with monoclonal antibody 22C10. The figure is a 3D reconstructed image with 30 slices of confocal sections with 3 μm interval. It shows that the proboscis is required for sensing attractive carboxylic acids such as glycolic acid, citric acid, and lactic acid (Shrestha and Lee, pp. 900-910).

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