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Mol. Cells 2005; 19(2): 157-166

Published online April 30, 2005

© The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology

Recent Progress of Structural Biology of tRNA Processing and Modification

Kotaro Nakanishi, Osamu Nureki

Abstract

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a key molecule to decode the genetic information on mRNA to amino aicds (protein), in a ribosome. For tRNA to fulfill its adopter function, tRNA should be processed into the standard length, and be post-transcriptionally modified. This modification step is essential for the tRNA to maintain the canonical L-shaped structure, which is required for the decoding function of tRNA. Otherwise, it has recently been proposed that modification procedure itself contributes to the RNA (re)folding, where the modification enzymes function as a kind of RNA chaperones. Recent genome analyses and post-genome (proteomics and transcriptomics) analyses have identified genes involved in the tRNA processings and modifications. Furthermore, post-genomic structural analysis has elucidated the structural basis for the tRNA maturation mechanism. In this paper, the recent progress of the structural biology of the tRNA processing and modification is reviewed.

Keywords Modification, Processing, tRNA

Article

Minireview

Mol. Cells 2005; 19(2): 157-166

Published online April 30, 2005

Copyright © The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology.

Recent Progress of Structural Biology of tRNA Processing and Modification

Kotaro Nakanishi, Osamu Nureki

Abstract

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a key molecule to decode the genetic information on mRNA to amino aicds (protein), in a ribosome. For tRNA to fulfill its adopter function, tRNA should be processed into the standard length, and be post-transcriptionally modified. This modification step is essential for the tRNA to maintain the canonical L-shaped structure, which is required for the decoding function of tRNA. Otherwise, it has recently been proposed that modification procedure itself contributes to the RNA (re)folding, where the modification enzymes function as a kind of RNA chaperones. Recent genome analyses and post-genome (proteomics and transcriptomics) analyses have identified genes involved in the tRNA processings and modifications. Furthermore, post-genomic structural analysis has elucidated the structural basis for the tRNA maturation mechanism. In this paper, the recent progress of the structural biology of the tRNA processing and modification is reviewed.

Keywords: Modification, Processing, tRNA

Mol. Cells
Dec 31, 2021 Vol.44 No.12, pp. 861~919
COVER PICTURE
Structure of the fly peripheral neurons in the fly head. Flies have basic sensory organs including eyes for vision, antennae and maxillary palps for olfaction, and proboscis (magenta) for gustation which can be labelled with monoclonal antibody 22C10. The figure is a 3D reconstructed image with 30 slices of confocal sections with 3 μm interval. It shows that the proboscis is required for sensing attractive carboxylic acids such as glycolic acid, citric acid, and lactic acid (Shrestha and Lee, pp. 900-910).

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