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Mol. Cells 2012; 33(6): 539-544

Published online June 30, 2012

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10059-012-0037-y

© The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology

Genomic Impact, Chromosomal Distribution and Transcriptional Regulation of HERV Elements

Heui-Soo Kim*

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Korea

Correspondence to : *Correspondence: khs307@pusan.ac.kr

Received: February 6, 2012; Revised: April 10, 2012; Accepted: April 12, 2012

Abstract

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) mediate struc-tural variation and genomic instability based on their multiple copy number, inherent ability to mobilize via reverse transcriptase, and high sequence similarity. More-over, they undergo multiple amplification and retrotransposition events, resulting in the widespread distribution of complete or partial retroviral sequences throughout the primate genome. As such, HERV elements have played important biological roles in ge-nome evolution, and their long terminal repeat (LTR) elements contain numerous regulatory sequences, including effective promoters, enhancers, polyadenylation signals, and transcription factor-binding sites. Lastly, HERV elements are capable of influencing the expression of neighboring genes, a process that also contributed to primate evolution.

Keywords chromosomal distribution, copy number, HERV, LTR elements, promoter

Article

Minireview

Mol. Cells 2012; 33(6): 539-544

Published online June 30, 2012 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10059-012-0037-y

Copyright © The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology.

Genomic Impact, Chromosomal Distribution and Transcriptional Regulation of HERV Elements

Heui-Soo Kim*

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Korea

Correspondence to:*Correspondence: khs307@pusan.ac.kr

Received: February 6, 2012; Revised: April 10, 2012; Accepted: April 12, 2012

Abstract

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) mediate struc-tural variation and genomic instability based on their multiple copy number, inherent ability to mobilize via reverse transcriptase, and high sequence similarity. More-over, they undergo multiple amplification and retrotransposition events, resulting in the widespread distribution of complete or partial retroviral sequences throughout the primate genome. As such, HERV elements have played important biological roles in ge-nome evolution, and their long terminal repeat (LTR) elements contain numerous regulatory sequences, including effective promoters, enhancers, polyadenylation signals, and transcription factor-binding sites. Lastly, HERV elements are capable of influencing the expression of neighboring genes, a process that also contributed to primate evolution.

Keywords: chromosomal distribution, copy number, HERV, LTR elements, promoter

Mol. Cells
Sep 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.9, pp. 603~672
COVER PICTURE
The Target of Rapamycin Complex (TORC) is a central regulatory hub in eukaryotes, which is well conserved in diverse plant species, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Inhibition of TORC genes (SlTOR, SlLST8, and SlRAPTOR) by VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing) results in early fruit ripening in tomato. The red/ orange tomatoes are early-ripened TORC-silenced fruits, while the green tomato is a control fruit. Top, left, control fruit (TRV2-myc); top, right, TRV2-SlLST8; bottom, left, TRV2-SlTOR; bottom, right, TRV2-SlRAPTOR(Choi et al., pp. 660-672).

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