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Mol. Cells 2012; 33(5): 423-430

Published online May 31, 2012

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10059-012-0039-9

© The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology

Regulation of the Polarity of Protein Trafficking by Phosphorylation

Anindya Ganguly, Daisuke Sasayama, and Hyung-Taeg Cho*

Department of Biological Sciences and Genomics and Breeding Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea

Correspondence to : *Correspondence: htcho@snu.ac.kr

Received: February 7, 2012; Revised: February 27, 2012; Accepted: March 2, 2012

Abstract

The asymmetry of environmental stimuli and the execu-tion of developmental programs at the organism level require a corresponding polarity at the cellular level, in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. In plants, cell polarity is important in major developmental processes such as cell division, cell enlargement, cell morphogenesis, embryogenesis, axis formation, organ development, and defense. One of the most important factors controlling cell polarity is the asymmetric distribution of polarity determinants. In particular, phosphorylation is implicated in the polar distribution of the determinant protein factors, a mechanism conserved in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants, formation of local gradients of auxin, the morphogenic hormone, is critical for plant developmental processes exhibiting polarity. The auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMEDs (PINs) localize asymmetrically in the plasma membrane and cause the formation of local auxin gradients throughout the plant. The asymmetry of PIN distribution in the plasma membrane is determined by phosphorylation-mediated polar trafficking of PIN proteins. This review discusses recent studies on the role of phosphorylation in polar PIN trafficking.

Keywords auxin, auxin transport, PIN-FORMED (PIN), phosphorylation, protein trafficking

Article

Minireview

Mol. Cells 2012; 33(5): 423-430

Published online May 31, 2012 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10059-012-0039-9

Copyright © The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology.

Regulation of the Polarity of Protein Trafficking by Phosphorylation

Anindya Ganguly, Daisuke Sasayama, and Hyung-Taeg Cho*

Department of Biological Sciences and Genomics and Breeding Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea

Correspondence to:*Correspondence: htcho@snu.ac.kr

Received: February 7, 2012; Revised: February 27, 2012; Accepted: March 2, 2012

Abstract

The asymmetry of environmental stimuli and the execu-tion of developmental programs at the organism level require a corresponding polarity at the cellular level, in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. In plants, cell polarity is important in major developmental processes such as cell division, cell enlargement, cell morphogenesis, embryogenesis, axis formation, organ development, and defense. One of the most important factors controlling cell polarity is the asymmetric distribution of polarity determinants. In particular, phosphorylation is implicated in the polar distribution of the determinant protein factors, a mechanism conserved in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants, formation of local gradients of auxin, the morphogenic hormone, is critical for plant developmental processes exhibiting polarity. The auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMEDs (PINs) localize asymmetrically in the plasma membrane and cause the formation of local auxin gradients throughout the plant. The asymmetry of PIN distribution in the plasma membrane is determined by phosphorylation-mediated polar trafficking of PIN proteins. This review discusses recent studies on the role of phosphorylation in polar PIN trafficking.

Keywords: auxin, auxin transport, PIN-FORMED (PIN), phosphorylation, protein trafficking

Mol. Cells
Sep 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.9, pp. 603~672
COVER PICTURE
The Target of Rapamycin Complex (TORC) is a central regulatory hub in eukaryotes, which is well conserved in diverse plant species, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Inhibition of TORC genes (SlTOR, SlLST8, and SlRAPTOR) by VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing) results in early fruit ripening in tomato. The red/ orange tomatoes are early-ripened TORC-silenced fruits, while the green tomato is a control fruit. Top, left, control fruit (TRV2-myc); top, right, TRV2-SlLST8; bottom, left, TRV2-SlTOR; bottom, right, TRV2-SlRAPTOR(Choi et al., pp. 660-672).

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