Top

Minireview

Split Viewer

Mol. Cells 2008; 25(3): 332-346

Published online May 31, 2008

© The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology

Regulation by Reversible S-Glutathionylation: Molecular Targets Implicated in Inflammatory Diseases

Melissa D. Shelton and John J. Mieyal

Abstract

S-glutathionylation is a reversible post-translational modification that continues to gain eminence as a redox regulatory mechanism of protein activity and associated cellular functions. Many diverse cellular proteins such as transcription factors, adhesion molecules, enzymes, and cytokines are reported to undergo glutathionylation, although the functional impact has been less well characterized. De-glutathionylation is catalyzed specifically and efficiently by glutaredoxin (GRx, aka thioltransferase), and facile reversibility is critical in determining the physiological relevance of glutathionylation as a means of protein regulation. Thus, studies with cohesive themes addressing both the glutathionylation of proteins and the corresponding impact of GRx are especially useful in advancing understanding. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox regulation are well accepted as playing a role in inflammatory processes, such as leukostasis and the destruction of foreign particles by macrophages. We discuss in this review the current implications of GRx and/or glutathionylation in the inflammatory response and in diseases associated with chronic inflammation, namely diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammatory lung disease, cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease, and in viral infections.

Keywords post translational modification, signal transduction, inflammation, cytokines, redox regulation, protein glutathionylation, glutaredoxin, glutathione

Article

Minireview

Mol. Cells 2008; 25(3): 332-346

Published online May 31, 2008

Copyright © The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology.

Regulation by Reversible S-Glutathionylation: Molecular Targets Implicated in Inflammatory Diseases

Melissa D. Shelton and John J. Mieyal

Abstract

S-glutathionylation is a reversible post-translational modification that continues to gain eminence as a redox regulatory mechanism of protein activity and associated cellular functions. Many diverse cellular proteins such as transcription factors, adhesion molecules, enzymes, and cytokines are reported to undergo glutathionylation, although the functional impact has been less well characterized. De-glutathionylation is catalyzed specifically and efficiently by glutaredoxin (GRx, aka thioltransferase), and facile reversibility is critical in determining the physiological relevance of glutathionylation as a means of protein regulation. Thus, studies with cohesive themes addressing both the glutathionylation of proteins and the corresponding impact of GRx are especially useful in advancing understanding. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox regulation are well accepted as playing a role in inflammatory processes, such as leukostasis and the destruction of foreign particles by macrophages. We discuss in this review the current implications of GRx and/or glutathionylation in the inflammatory response and in diseases associated with chronic inflammation, namely diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammatory lung disease, cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease, and in viral infections.

Keywords: post translational modification, signal transduction, inflammation, cytokines, redox regulation, protein glutathionylation, glutaredoxin, glutathione

Mol. Cells
Sep 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.9, pp. 603~672
COVER PICTURE
The Target of Rapamycin Complex (TORC) is a central regulatory hub in eukaryotes, which is well conserved in diverse plant species, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Inhibition of TORC genes (SlTOR, SlLST8, and SlRAPTOR) by VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing) results in early fruit ripening in tomato. The red/ orange tomatoes are early-ripened TORC-silenced fruits, while the green tomato is a control fruit. Top, left, control fruit (TRV2-myc); top, right, TRV2-SlLST8; bottom, left, TRV2-SlTOR; bottom, right, TRV2-SlRAPTOR(Choi et al., pp. 660-672).

Share this article on

  • line
  • mail

Related articles in Mol. Cells

Molecules and Cells

eISSN 0219-1032
qr-code Download