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Fig. 2. Effects of TULPs on ciliary trafficking of ARL13B, INPP5E, and GPR161 in RPE1 cells.
(A-C) Wild-type RPE1 cells and TULP3 KO RPE1 cells, transfected with the indicated TULPs. Cells were stained with antibodies specific for the axonemal marker Ac-tubulin, as well as ARL13B (A), INPP5E (B), or GPR161 (C). Transfected cells were identified with DsRed staining. Non-transfected cells were identified with the nuclear stain To-Pro3. Enlarged images of single cilia displayed on the right. Scale bars = 5 μm. A quantification of ciliated cells expressing each ciliary protein is shown below. Data are presented as mean ± SEM from three independent experiments. More than 100 ciliated cells were counted for each condition. One-way ANOVAs with Tukey’s post-hoc tests. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.
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