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Fig. 2. The roles of GM-CSF and TGF-β in the development of AMs.
(A) GM-CSF, secreted by lung epithelial cells, induces the JAK2/STAT5-mediated transcription of PPAR-γ in AMs. (B) TGF-β is produced by adult AMs, and the cellular precursors of AMs then phosphorylate PPAR-γ in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner.
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