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Fig. 1. Overview of major proteins in lipolysis and lipophagy. Lipolysis is processed into three separate steps. First, TG is hydrolyzed to make DG by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Second, DG is hydrolyzed to make MG by HSL, which is phosphorylated by perilipin. Finally, MG is hydrolyzed to make glycerol and FFAs by MGL. One the other hand, lipophagy is defined as selective autophagic degradation of LDs. Under nutrient starvation, lipophagy forms phagophore, which is composed of Atg5, Atg7, LC3, and Rab family. PNPLA family has specific molecular motifs to associate with LDs and play key roles in LD breakdown. Autophagosomes engulf LDs and fuse with a lysosome to form an autolysosome. Then, neutral lipids in LDs are hydrolyzed by lysosomal lipases, which are expressed by TFEB.
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