Molecules and Cells

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Fig. 1. The PIWI protein and piRNA form a complex, called piRNA-induced silencing complex (piRISC). piRISC regulates targeted RNAs, including transposable elements and endogenous target mRNAs, via transcriptional gene regulation (TGS) or post-transcriptional gene regulation (PTGS). TGS is often mediated through the recruitment of a chromatin methylation complex to the nucleus inducing a heterochromatin state, which serves as a repressive mark. TGS can also be mediated by recruiting DNA methyltransferases. PTGS is often mediated by the endonuclease activity of the PIWI protein resulting in cleavage of the target mRNA in the cytoplasm.
Mol. Cells 2019;42:828~835
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