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Fig. 3. Multidisciplinary bioengineering techniques provide a breakthrough to overcome the limitations of the current brain organoid technology. Tissue engineering approaches, such as 3D bioprinting, enable the rationally-designed organization of various type of cells in brain organoids. The region-specific brain organoids can be fused together to induce the integration of neural networks between distinct regions. Non-neuronal cells can be incorporated into brain organoids to model the interactions among neurons, glia, immune cells, and vasculature (left panel). The brain organoid technology has great translational potential for modeling brain disorders and screening therapeutic drugs. Brain organoids from patient-derived iPSCs are relevant platforms for studying brain cancer, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Patient-specific mutations or oncogenes can be introduced into brain organoids using CRISPR/Cas9 technology to investigate the genetic mechanisms of brain disorders. In addition, a personalized drug screening using patient-derived organoids could predict drug efficacy before a drug treatment of patients (right panel).
Mol. Cells 2019;42:617~627
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