Molecules and Cells

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Fig. 1. Organoid technology started from the research on re-aggregation of sponge cells, suggesting self-organization plays a key role in organ formation (; ; ). PSCs including embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent cells were established (; ; ). With these stem cell lines, various types of organoids are developed from intestine to hippocampus (; ; ; ; ). Brain organoid models have been widely used to study human brain disorders, including ZIKV infection. Bioengineering technologies are being developed to address the current limitations of organoids such as oxygen deprivation during long-term culture ().
Mol. Cells 2019;42:617~627
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