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Fig. 3. Carbon monoxide inhibits mitochondrial complex IV and then activates PERK via increasing mitochondrial ROS. Activated PERK induces the Nrf2-HO-1 pathways. HO-1 is induced by the various stimulators such as CO, curcumin, resveratrol and flavonoids, thereby increasing endogenous CO production. And also, CO-releasing molecules (CORM-1, 2, 3, and A1) produce CO in cells. See the text for more details.
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