Molecules and Cells

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Fig. 1. Although the information in the diagram is mostly derived from studies of yeast and mammals, QC systems are largely conserved in plants. After export from the nucleus, QC of messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) is associated with pioneering and subsequent translation cycles. Decay of mRNA is mostly carried out by cytosolic RNase activities, although bulk RNA degradation in the vacuole can be mediated by multiple types of autophagy. Protein QC systems consist of molecular chaperones (represented by green circles labeled in heat shock proteins [Hsp]), the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), and autophagy. Both the UPS and autophagy (highlighted in two separate boxes) are degradation pathways for terminally misfolded proteins, which are tagged by ubiquitins (grey stars). Circles labeled “8” symbolize ATG8 attached to autophagic membrane. Light blue and magenta arrows indicate the flux of mRNP and proteins, respectively. The approximate size ranges of mRNP, RNP granules, protein aggregates, and protein QC compartments are logarithmically scaled. LLPS, liquid-liquid phase separation.
Mol. Cells 2019;42:285~291
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