Molecules and Cells

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Fig. 1. Upon supraphysiological levels of androgen treatment, androgens activate anabolic effects via the IGF-1, PI3K/Akt and follistatin pathways and counteract the catabolic effects by inhibiting the myostatin/SMAD and Foxo3 pathways. Besides the crosstalk between androgens and other signaling pathways in skeletal muscles, androgens also can induce the expressions of IGF1, follistatin and sarcomeric proteins which lead to muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy. Although the role of androgens in muscle stem cells is still debated, there are some studies that have reported that androgens also can activate muscle stem cells to proliferate and stimulate myonuclei accretion in pre-existing myofibers via muscle stem cell recruitment.
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