Abstract : Reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as secondary messengers that regulate various developmental and signal transduction processes, with ROS primarily generated by NADPH OXIDASEs (referred to as RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGs [RBOHs] in plants). However, the types and locations of ROS produced by RBOHs are different from those expected to mediate intracellular signaling. RBOHs produce O2•− rather than H2O2 which is relatively long-lived and able to diffuse through membranes, and this production occurs outside the cell instead of in the cytoplasm, where signaling cascades occur. A widely accepted model explaining this discrepancy proposes that RBOH-produced extracellular O2•− is converted to H2O2 by superoxide dismutase and then imported by aquaporins to reach its cytoplasmic targets. However, this model does not explain how the specificity of ROS targeting is ensured while minimizing unnecessary damage during the bulk translocation of extracellular ROS (eROS). An increasing number of studies have provided clues about eROS action mechanisms, revealing various mechanisms for eROS perception in the apoplast, crosstalk between eROS and reactive nitrogen species, and the contribution of intracellular organelles to cytoplasmic ROS bursts. In this review, we summarize these recent advances, highlight the mechanisms underlying eROS action, and provide an overview of the routes by which eROS-induced changes reach the intracellular space.
Abstract : N-glycosylation, a common post-translational modification, is widely acknowledged to have a significant effect on protein stability and folding. N-glycosylation is a complex process that occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and requires the participation of multiple enzymes. GlcNAc-1-P-transferase (GPT) is essential for initiating N-glycosylation in the ER. Tunicamycin is a natural product that inhibits N-glycosylation and produces ER stress, and thus it is utilized in research. The molecular mechanism by which GPT triggers N-glycosylation is discussed in this review based on the GPT structure. Based on the structure of the GPT-tunicamycin complex, we also discuss how tunicamycin reduces GPT activity, which prevents N-glycosylation. This review will be highly useful for understanding the role of GPT in the N-glycosylation of proteins, as well as presents a potential for considering tunicamycin as an antibiotic treatment.
Abstract : Deamination of adenine or cytosine in RNA, called RNA editing, is a constitutively active and common modification. The primary role of RNA editing is tagging RNA right after its synthesis so that the endogenous RNA is recognized as self and distinguished from exogenous RNA, such as viral RNA. In addition to this primary function, the direct or indirect effects on gene expression can be utilized in cancer where a high level of RNA editing activity persists. This report identified actin-related protein 2/3 complex inhibitor (ARPIN) as a target of ADAR1 in breast cancer cells. Our comparative RNA sequencing analysis in MCF7 cells revealed that the expression of ARPIN was decreased upon ADAR1 depletion with altered editing on its 3’UTR. However, the expression changes of ARPIN were not dependent on 3’UTR editing but relied on three microRNAs acting on ARPIN. As a result, we found that the migration and invasion of cancer cells were profoundly increased by ADAR1 depletion, and this cellular phenotype was reversed by the exogenous ARPIN expression. Altogether, our data suggest that ADAR1 suppresses breast cancer cell mobility via the upregulation of ARPIN.
Abstract : Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common subtype of thyroid carcinoma. Despite a good prognosis, approximately a quarter of PTC patients are likely to relapse. Previous reports suggest an association between S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) and the prognosis of thyroid cancer. SKP1 is related to apoptosis of PTC cells; however, its role in PTC remains largely elusive. This study aimed to understand the expression and molecular mechanism of SKP2 in PTC. SKP2 expression was upregulated in PTC tissues and closely associated with clinical diagnosis. In vitro and in vivo knockdown of SKP2 expression in PTC cells suppressed cell growth and proliferation and induced apoptosis. SKP2 depletion promoted cell autophagy under glucose deprivation. SKP2 interacted with PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase-1 (PHLPP1), triggering its degradation by ubiquitination. Furthermore, SKP2 activates the AKT-related pathways via PHLPP1, which leads to the cytoplasmic translocation of SKP2, indicating a reciprocal regulation between SKP2 and AKT. In conclusion, the upregulation of SKP2 leads to PTC proliferation and survival, and the regulatory network among SKP2, PHLPP1, and AKT provides novel insight into the molecular basis of SKP2 in tumor progression.
Abstract : Thermal stress induces dynamic changes in nuclear proteins and relevant physiology as a part of the heat shock response (HSR). However, how the nuclear HSR is fine-tuned for cellular homeostasis remains elusive. Here, we show that mitochondrial activity plays an important role in nuclear proteostasis and genome stability through two distinct HSR pathways. Mitochondrial ribosomal protein (MRP) depletion enhanced the nucleolar granule formation of HSP70 and ubiquitin during HSR while facilitating the recovery of damaged nuclear proteins and impaired nucleocytoplasmic transport. Treatment of the mitochondrial proton gradient uncoupler masked MRP-depletion effects, implicating oxidative phosphorylation in these nuclear HSRs. On the other hand, MRP depletion and a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger non-additively decreased mitochondrial ROS generation during HSR, thereby protecting the nuclear genome from DNA damage. These results suggest that suboptimal mitochondrial activity sustains nuclear homeostasis under cellular stress, providing plausible evidence for optimal endosymbiotic evolution via mitochondria-to-nuclear communication.
Abstract : Microtubule acetylation has been proposed as a marker of highly heterogeneous and aggressive triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The novel microtubule acetylation inhibitors GM-90257 and GM-90631 (GM compounds) cause TNBC cancer cell death but the underlying mechanisms are currently unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that GM compounds function as anti-TNBC agents through activation of the JNK/AP-1 pathway. RNA-seq and biochemical analyses of GM compound-treated cells revealed that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and members of its downstream signaling pathway are potential targets for GM compounds. Mechanistically, JNK activation by GM compounds induced an increase in c-Jun phosphorylation and c-Fos protein levels, thereby activating the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor. Notably, direct suppression of JNK with a pharmacological inhibitor alleviated Bcl2 reduction and cell death caused by GM compounds. TNBC cell death and mitotic arrest were induced by GM compounds through AP-1 activation in vitro. These results were reproduced in vivo, validating the significance of microtubule acetylation/JNK/AP-1 axis activation in the anti-cancer activity of GM compounds. Moreover, GM compounds significantly attenuated tumor growth, metastasis, and cancer-related death in mice, demonstrating strong potential as therapeutic agents for TNBC.