Abstract : The centrosome is a subcellular organelle from which a cilium assembles. Since centrosomes function as spindle poles during mitosis, they have to be present as a pair in a cell. How the correct number of centrosomes is maintained in a cell has been a major issue in the fields of cell cycle and cancer biology. Centrioles, the core of centrosomes, assemble and segregate in close connection to the cell cycle. Abnormalities in centriole numbers are attributed to decoupling from cell cycle regulation. Interestingly, supernumerary centrioles are commonly observed in cancer cells. In this review, we discuss how supernumerary centrioles are generated in diverse cellular conditions. We also discuss how the cells cope with supernumerary centrioles during the cell cycle.
Abstract : Hypoxia, or low oxygen tension, is a hallmark of the tumor microenvironment. The hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) subunit plays a critical role in the adaptive cellular response of hypoxic tumor cells to low oxygen tension by activating gene-expression programs that control cancer cell metabolism, angiogenesis, and therapy resistance. Phosphorylation is involved in the stabilization and regulation of HIF-1α transcriptional activity. HIF-1α is activated by several factors, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily. MAPK phosphatase 3 (MKP-3) is a cytoplasmic dual-specificity phosphatase specific for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2). Recent evidence indicates that hypoxia increases the endogenous levels of both MKP-3 mRNA and protein. However, its role in the response of cells to hypoxia is poorly understood. Herein, we demonstrated that small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of MKP-3 enhanced HIF-1α (not HIF-2α) levels. Conversely, MKP-3 overexpression suppressed HIF-1α (not HIF-2α) levels, as well as the expression levels of hypoxia-responsive genes (LDHA, CA9, GLUT-1, and VEGF), in hypoxic colon cancer cells. These findings indicated that MKP-3, induced by HIF-1α in hypoxia, negatively regulates HIF-1α protein levels and hypoxia-responsive genes. However, we also found that long-term hypoxia (>12 h) induced proteasomal degradation of MKP-3 in a lactic acid-dependent manner. Taken together, MKP-3 expression is modulated by the hypoxic conditions prevailing in colon cancer, and plays a role in cellular adaptation to tumor hypoxia and tumor progression. Thus, MKP-3 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for colon cancer treatment.
Abstract : Spemann organizer is a center of dorsal mesoderm and itself retains the mesoderm character, but it has a stimulatory role for neighboring ectoderm cells in becoming neuroectoderm in gastrula embryos. Goosecoid (Gsc) overexpression in ventral region promotes secondary axis formation including neural tissues, but the role of gsc in neural specification could be indirect. We examined the neural inhibitory and stimulatory roles of gsc in the same cell and neighboring cells contexts. In the animal cap explant system, Gsc overexpression inhibited expression of neural specific genes including foxd4l1.1, zic3, ncam, and neurod. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) and promoter analysis of early neural genes of foxd4l1.1 and zic3 were performed to show that the neural inhibitory mode of gsc was direct. Site-directed mutagenesis and serially deleted construct studies of foxd4l1.1 promoter revealed that Gsc directly binds within the foxd4l1.1 promoter to repress its expression. Conjugation assay of animal cap explants was also performed to demonstrate an indirect neural stimulatory role for gsc. The genes for secretory molecules, Chordin and Noggin, were up-regulated in gsc injected cells with the neural fate only achieved in gsc uninjected neighboring cells. These experiments suggested that gsc regulates neuroectoderm formation negatively when expressed in the same cell and positively in neighboring cells via soluble factors. One is a direct suppressive circuit of neural genes in gsc expressing mesoderm cells and the other is an indirect stimulatory circuit for neurogenesis in neighboring ectoderm cells via secreted BMP antagonizers.
Abstract : Although various marine ingredients have been exploited for the development of cosmetic products, no previous study has examined the potential of seaweed extracellular vesicles (EV) in such applications. Our results revealed that EV from Codium fragile and Sargassum fusiforme effectively decreased α-MSH-mediated melanin synthesis in MNT-1 human melanoma cells, associated with downregulation of MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor), tyrosinase and TRP1 (tyrosinase-related proteins 1). The most effective inhibitory concentrations of EV were 250 μg/ml for S. fusiforme and 25 μg/ml for C. fragile, without affecting the viability of MNT-1 cells. Both EV reduced melanin synthesis in the epidermal basal layer of a three-dimensional model of human epidermis. Moreover, the application of the prototype cream containing C. fragile EV (final 5 μg/ml) yielded 1.31% improvement in skin brightness in a clinical trial. Together, these results suggest that EV from C. fragile and S. fusiforme reduce melanin synthesis and may be potential therapeutic and/or supplementary whitening agents.
Abstract : Plant somatic cells can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent cell mass, called callus, which can be subsequently used for de novo shoot regeneration through a two-step in vitro tissue culture method. MET1-dependent CG methylation has been implicated in plant regeneration in Arabidopsis, because the met1-3 mutant exhibits increased shoot regeneration compared with the wild-type. To understand the role of MET1 in de novo shoot regeneration, we compared the genome-wide DNA methylomes and transcriptomes of wild-type and met1-3 callus and leaf. The CG methylation patterns were largely unchanged during leaf-to-callus transition, suggesting that the altered regeneration phenotype of met1-3 was caused by the constitutively hypomethylated genes, independent of the tissue type. In particular, MET1-dependent CG methylation was observed at the blue light receptor genes, CRYPTOCHROME 1 (CRY1) and CRY2, which reduced their expression. Coexpression network analysis revealed that the CRY1 gene was closely linked to cytokinin signaling genes. Consistently, functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes in met1-3 showed that gene ontology terms related to light and hormone signaling were overrepresented. Overall, our findings indicate that MET1-dependent repression of light and cytokinin signaling influences plant regeneration capacity and shoot identity establishment.
Abstract : Calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) is a membrane protein with four transmembrane helices that form an octameric ion channel with voltage-dependent activation. There are four conserved cysteine (Cys) residues in the extracellular domain that form two intramolecular disulfide bonds. We investigated the roles of C42-C127 and C44-C161 in human CALHM1 channel biogenesis and the ionic current (ICALHM1). Replacing Cys with Ser or Ala abolished the membrane trafficking as well as ICALHM1. Immunoblotting analysis revealed dithiothreitol-sensitive multimeric CALHM1, which was markedly reduced in C44S and C161S, but preserved in C42S and C127S. The mixed expression of C42S and wild-type did not show a dominant-negative effect. While the heteromeric assembly of CALHM1 and CALHM3 formed active ion channels, the co-expression of C42S and CALHM3 did not produce functional channels. Despite the critical structural role of the extracellular cysteine residues, a treatment with the membrane-impermeable reducing agent tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine (TCEP, 2 mM) did not affect ICALHM1 for up to 30 min. Interestingly, incubation with TCEP (2 mM) for 2-6 h reduced both ICALHM1 and the surface expression of CALHM1 in a time-dependent manner. We propose that the intramolecular disulfide bonds are essential for folding, oligomerization, trafficking and maintenance of CALHM1 in the plasma membrane, but dispensable for the voltage-dependent activation once expressed on the plasma membrane.
Ilchan Song , Young Koung Lee , Jin Wook Kim , Seung-Won Lee , Se Ra Park , Hae Kyung Lee , Soyeon Oh , Kinarm Ko , Mi Kyung Kim , Soon Ju Park , Dae Heon Kim , Moon-Soo Kim , Do Sun Kim , and Kisung KoMol. Cells 2021; 44(10): 770-779 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2021.2002
Abstract : Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing an anti-rabies monoclonal antibody (mAb), SO57, was obtained using Agrobacterium-mediated floral dip transformation. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) was tagged to the C-terminus of the anti-rabies mAb heavy chain to localize the mAb to the ER and enhance its accumulation. When the inaccurately folded proteins accumulated in the ER exceed its storage capacity, it results in stress that can affect plant development and growth. We generated T1 transformants and obtained homozygous T3 seeds from transgenic Arabidopsis to investigate the effect of KDEL on plant growth. The germination rate did not significantly differ between plants expressing mAb SO57 without KDEL (SO plant) and mAb SO57 with KDEL (SOK plant). The primary roots of SOK agar media grown plants were slightly shorter than those of SO plants. Transcriptomic analysis showed that expression of all 11 ER stress-related genes were not significantly changed in SOK plants relative to SO plants. SOK plants showed approximately three-fold higher mAb expression levels than those of SO plants. Consequently, the purified mAb amount per unit of SOK plant biomass was approximately three times higher than that of SO plants. A neutralization assay revealed that both plants exhibited efficient rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test values against the rabies virus relative to commercially available human rabies immunoglobulins. KDEL did not upregulate ER stress-related genes; therefore, the enhanced production of the mAb did not affect plant growth. Thus, KDEL fusion is recommended for enhancing mAb production in plant systems.