Abstract : Hypoxia plays important roles in cancer progression by inducing angiogenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. However, the effects of hypoxia on long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) expression have not been clarified. Herein, we evaluated alterations in lncRNA expression in lung cancer cells under hypoxic conditions using lncRNA microarray analyses. Among 40,173 lncRNAs, 211 and 113 lncRNAs were up- and downregulated, respectively, in both A549 and NCI-H460 cells. Uroplakin 1A (UPK1A) and UPK1A-antisense RNA 1 (AS1), which showed the highest upregulation under hypoxic conditions, were selected to investigate the effects of UPK1AAS1 on the expression of UPK1A and the mechanisms of hypoxia-inducible expression. Following transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting hypoxiainducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), the hypoxia-induced expression of UPK1A and UPK1A-AS1 was significantly reduced, indicating that HIF-1α played important roles in the hypoxiainduced expression of these targets. After transfection of cells with UPK1A siRNA, UPK1A and UPK1A-AS1 levels were reduced. Moreover, transfection of cells with UPK1A-AS1 siRNA downregulated both UPK1A-AS1 and UPK1A. RNase protection assays demonstrated that UPK1A and UPK1A-AS1 formed a duplex; thus, transfection with UPK1A-AS1 siRNA decreased the RNA stability of UPK1A. Overall, these results indicated that UPK1A and UPK1A-AS1 expression increased under hypoxic conditions in a HIF-1α-dependent manner and that formation of a UPK1A/UPK1A-AS1 duplex affected RNA stability, enabling each molecule to regulate the expression of the other.
Abstract : Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes salmonellosis and mortality worldwide. S. Typhimurium infects macrophages and survives within phagosomes by avoiding the phagosome-lysosome fusion system. Phagosomes sequentially acquire different Rab GTPases during maturation and eventually fuse with acidic lysosomes. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is a bioactive lipid that is associated with the generation of chemoattractants and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In our previous study, LPC controlled the intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by promoting phagosome maturation. In this study, to verify whether LPC enhances phagosome maturation and regulates the intracellular growth of S. Typhimurium, macrophages were infected with S. Typhimurium. LPC decreased the intracellular bacterial burden, but it did not induce cytotoxicity in S. Typhimuriuminfected cells. In addition, combined administration of LPC and antibiotic significantly reduced the bacterial burden in the spleen and the liver. The ratios of the colocalization of intracellular S. Typhimurium with phagosome maturation markers, such as early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) and lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1), were significantly increased in LPC-treated cells. The expression level of cleaved cathepsin D was rapidly increased in LPCtreated cells during S. Typhimurium infection. Treatment with LPC enhanced ROS production, but it did not affect nitric oxide production in S. Typhimurium-infected cells. LPC also rapidly triggered the phosphorylation of IκBα during S. Typhimurium infection. These results suggest that LPC can improve phagosome maturation via ROS-induced activation of NF-κB pathway and thus may be developed as a therapeutic agent to control S. Typhimurium growth.
Abstract : Cilia are important eukaryotic cellular compartments required for diverse biological functions. Recent studies have revealed that protein targeting into the proper ciliary subcompartments is essential for ciliary function. In Drosophila chordotonal cilium, where mechano-electric transduction occurs, two transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily ion channels, TRPV and TRPN, are restricted to the proximal and distal subcompartments, respectively. To understand the mechanisms underlying the sub-ciliary segregation of the two TRPs, we analyzed their localization under various conditions. In developing chordotonal cilia, TRPN was directly targeted to the ciliary tip from the beginning of its appearance and was retained in the distal subcompartment throughout development, whereas the ciliary localization of TRPV was considerably delayed. Lack of intraflagella transport-related proteins affected TRPV from the initial stage of its pre-ciliary trafficking, whereas it affected TRPN from the ciliary entry stage. The ectopic expression of the two TRP channels in both ciliated and nonciliated cells revealed their intrinsic properties related to their localization. Taken together, our results suggest that subciliary segregation of the two TRP channels relies on their distinct intrinsic properties, and begins at the initial stage of their pre-ciliary trafficking.
Abstract : Cell type specification is a delicate biological event in which every step is under tight regulation. From a molecular point of view, cell fate commitment begins with chromatin alteration, which kickstarts lineage-determining factors to initiate a series of genes required for cell specification. Several important neuronal differentiation factors have been identified from ectopic over-expression studies. However, there is scarce information on which DNA regions are modified during induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) to neuronal progenitor cell (NPC) differentiation, the cis regulatory factors that attach to these accessible regions, or the genes that are initially expressed. In this study, we identified the DNA accessible regions of iPSCs and NPCs via the Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin sequencing (ATACseq). We identified which chromatin regions were modified after neuronal differentiation and found that the enhancer regions had more active histone modification changes than the promoters. Through motif enrichment analysis, we found that NEUROD1 controls iPSC differentiation to NPC by binding to the accessible regions of enhancers in cooperation with other factors such as the Hox proteins. Finally, by using Hi-C data, we categorized the genes that directly interacted with the enhancers under the control of NEUROD1 during iPSC to NPC differentiation.
Abstract : Complement fragment iC3b serves as a major opsonin for facilitating phagocytosis via its interaction with complement receptors CR3 and CR4, also known by their leukocyte integrin family names, αMβ2 and αXβ2, respectively. Although there is general agreement that iC3b binds to the αM and αX I-domains of the respective β2-integrins, much less is known regarding the regions of iC3b contributing to the αX I-domain binding. In this study, using recombinant αX I-domain, as well as recombinant fragments of iC3b as candidate binding partners, we have identified two distinct binding moieties of iC3b for the αX I-domain. They are the C3 convertase-generated N-terminal segment of the C3b α’- chain (α’NT) and the factor I cleavage-generated N-terminal segment in the CUBf region of α-chain. Additionally, we have found that the CUBf segment is a novel binding moiety of iC3b for the αM I-domain. The CUBf segment shows about a 2-fold higher binding activity than the α’NT for αX I-domain. We also have shown the involvement of crucial acidic residues on the iC3b side of the interface and basic residues on the I-domain side.
Abstract : The Drosophila genome contains four low molecular weightprotein tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP) members: Primo-1, Primo-2, CG14297, and CG31469. The lack of intensive biochemical analysis has limited our understanding of these proteins. Primo-1 and CG31469 were previously classified as pseudophosphatases, but CG31469 was also suggested to be a putative protein arginine phosphatase. Herein, we present the crystal structures of CG31469 and Primo-1, which are the first Drosophila LMW-PTP structures. Structural analysis showed that the two proteins adopt the typical LMW-PTP fold and have a canonically arranged P-loop. Intriguingly, while Primo-1 is presumed to be a canonical LMW-PTP, CG31469 is unique as it contains a threonine residue at the fifth position of the P-loop motif instead of highly conserved isoleucine and a characteristically narrow active site pocket, which should facilitate the accommodation of phosphoarginine. Subsequent biochemical analysis revealed that Primo-1 and CG31469 are enzymatically active on phosphotyrosine and phosphoarginine, respectively, refuting their classification as pseudophosphatases. Collectively, we provide structural and biochemical data on two Drosophila proteins: Primo-1, the canonical LMW-PTP protein, and CG31469, the first investigated eukaryotic protein arginine phosphatase. We named CG31469 as DARP, which stands for Drosophila ARginine Phosphatase.