Top

Archives

Archives
Previous​ Next
  • MinireviewJuly 31, 2019

    0 615 2338

    Role of RIN4 in Regulating PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Effector-Triggered Immunity: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Sujit Kumar Ray , Donah Mary Macoy , Woe-Yeon Kim , Sang Yeol Lee , and Min Gab Kim

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(7): 503-511 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.2433
    Abstract

    Abstract : As sessile organisms, plants have developed sophisticated system to defend themselves against microbial attack. Since plants do not have specialized immune cells, all plant cells appear to have the innate ability to recognize pathogens and turn on an appropriate defense response. The plant innate immune system has two major branches: PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular patterns)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). The ability to discriminate between self and non-self is a fundamental feature of living organisms, and it is a prerequisite for the activation of plant defenses specific to microbial infection. Arabidopsis cells express receptors that detect extracellular molecules or structures of the microbes, which are called collectively PAMPs and activate PTI. However, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeats (NB-LRR) proteins mediated ETI is induced by direct or indirect recognition of effector molecules encoded by avr genes. In Arabidopsis, plasma-membrane localized multifunctional protein RIN4 (RPM1-interacting protein 4) plays important role in both PTI and ETI. Previous studies have suggested that RIN4 functions as a negative regulator of PTI. In addition, many different bacterial effector proteins modify RIN4 to destabilize plant immunity and several NB-LRR proteins, including RPM1 (resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola 1), RPS2 (resistance to P. syringae 2) guard RIN4. This review summarizes the current studies that have described signaling mechanism of RIN4 function, modification of RIN4 by bacterial effectors and different interacting partner of RIN4 in defense related pathway. In addition, the emerging role of the RIN4 in plant physiology and intercellular signaling as it presents in exosomes will be discussed.

  • MinireviewJuly 31, 2019

    0 316 1672
    Abstract

    Abstract : Chromosomes located in the nucleus form discrete units of genetic material composed of DNA and protein complexes. The genetic information is encoded in linear DNA sequences, but its interpretation requires an understanding of three-dimensional (3D) structure of the chromosome, in which distant DNA sequences can be juxtaposed by highly condensed chromatin packing in the space of nucleus to precisely control gene expression. Recent technological innovations in exploring higher-order chromatin structure have uncovered organizational principles of the 3D genome and its various biological implications. Very recently, it has been reported that large-scale genomic variations may disrupt higher-order chromatin organization and as a consequence, greatly contribute to disease-specific gene regulation for a range of human diseases. Here, we review recent developments in studying the effect of structural variation in gene regulation, and the detection and the interpretation of structural variations in the context of 3D chromatin structure.

  • Research ArticleJuly 31, 2019

    0 383 761
    Abstract

    Abstract : mRNA quality is controlled by multiple RNA surveillance machineries to reduce errors during gene expression processes in eukaryotic cells. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a well-characterized mechanism that degrades error-containing transcripts during translation. The ATP-dependent RNA helicase up-frameshift 1 (UPF1) is a key player in NMD that is mostly prevalent in the cytoplasm. However, recent studies on UPF1-RNA interaction suggest more comprehensive roles of UPF1 on diverse forms of target transcripts. Here we used subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence to understand such complex functions of UPF1. We demonstrated that UPF1 can be localized to the nucleus and predominantly associated with the chromatin. Moreover, we showed that UPF1 associates more strongly with the chromatin when the transcription elongation and translation inhibitors were used. These findings suggest a novel role of UPF1 in transcription elongation-coupled RNA machinery in the chromatin, as well as in translation-coupled NMD in the cytoplasm. Thus, we propose that cytoplasmic UPF1-centric RNA surveillance mechanism could be extended further up to the chromatin-associated UPF1 and co-transcriptional RNA surveillance. Our findings could provide the mechanistic insights on extensive regulatory roles of UPF1 for many cellular RNAs.

  • Research ArticleJuly 31, 2019

    0 339 723

    Radiation-Induced CXCL12 Upregulation via Histone Modification at the Promoter in the Tumor Microenvironment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Hak Jun Ahn, Soon Young Hwang, Ngoc Hoan Nguyen, Ik Jae Lee, Eun Jeong Lee, Jinsil Seong, and Jong-Soo Lee

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(7): 530-545 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.2280
    Abstract

    Abstract : Tumor cells can vary epigenetically during ionizing irradiation (IR) treatment. These epigenetic variegations can influence IR response and shape tumor aggressiveness. However, epigenetic disturbance of histones after IR, implicating in IR responsiveness, has been elusive. Here, we investigate whether altered histone modification after IR can influence radiation responsiveness. The oncogenic CXCL12 mRNA and protein were more highly expressed in residual cancer cells from a hepatoma heterotopic murine tumor microenvironment and coculture of human hepatoma Huh7 and normal IMR90 cells after radiation. H3K4 methylation was also enriched and H3K9 methylation was decreased at its promoter region. Accordingly, invasiveness and the subpopulation of aggressive CD133+/CD24 cells increased after IR. Histone demethylase inhibitor IOX1 attenuated CXCL12 expression and the malignant subpopulation, suggesting that responses to IR can be partially mediated via histone modifications. Taken together, radiation-induced histone alterations at the CXCL12 promoter in hepatoma cells are linked to CXCL12 upregulation and increased aggressiveness in the tumor microenvironment.

  • Research ArticleJuly 31, 2019

    0 315 717
    Abstract

    Abstract : Protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) is a crucial protein complex that plays an important role in DNA damage response (DDR), including DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Despite the significance of PP4, the mechanism by which PP4 is regulated remains to be elucidated. Here, we identified a novel PP4 inhibitor, protein phosphatase 4 inhibitory protein (PP4IP) and elucidated its cellular functions. PP4IP-knockout cells were generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and the phosphorylation status of PP4 substrates (H2AX, KAP1, and RPA2) was analyzed. Then we investigated that how PP4IP affects the cellular functions of PP4 by immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair assays. PP4IP interacts with PP4 complex, which is affected by DNA damage and cell cycle progression and decreases the dephosphorylational activity of PP4. Both overexpression and depletion of PP4IP impairs DSB repairs and sensitizes cells to genotoxic stress, suggesting timely inhibition of PP4 to be indispensable for cells in responding to DNA damage. Our results identify a novel inhibitor of PP4 that inhibits PP4-mediated cellular functions and establish the physiological importance of this regulation. In addition, PP4IP might be developed as potential therapeutic reagents for targeting tumors particularly with high level of PP4C expression.

  • Research ArticleJuly 31, 2019

    0 327 571

    TSPAN12 Precedes Tumor Proliferation by Cell Cycle Control in Ovarian Cancer

    Guohua Ji, Hongbin Liang, Falin Wang, Nan Wang, Songbin Fu, and Xiaobo Cui

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(7): 557-567 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0015
    Abstract

    Abstract : TSPAN12, a member of the tetraspanin family, has been highly connected with the pathogenesis of cancer. Its biological function, however, especially in ovarian cancer (OC), has not been well elucidated. In this study, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset analysis revealed that upregulation of TSPAN12 gene expression was significantly correlated with patient survival, suggesting that TSPAN12 might be a potential prognostic marker for OC. Further exploration showed that TSPAN12 overexpression accelerated proliferation and colony formation of OVCAR3 and SKOV3 OC cells. Knockdown of TSPAN12 expression in A2780 and SKOV3 cells decreased both proliferation and colony formation. Western blot analysis showed that several cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) (e.g., Cyclin A2, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E2, CDK2, and CDK4) were significantly involved in the regulation of cell cycle downstream of TSPAN12. Moreover, TSPAN12 accelerated mitotic progression by controlling cell cycle. Thus, our data demonstrated that TSPAN12 could be a novel molecular target for the treatment of OC.

Mol. Cells
Jul 31, 2022 Vol.45 No.7
COVER PICTURE
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells capable of differentiating into mesodermal lineages like adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic. Alcian blue-positive extracellular matrix secreted by chondrocytes in the lacuna confirmed the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs (Bashyal et al., pp. 479-494).

Archives

Molecules and Cells

eISSN 0219-1032
qr-code Download