Jae-Seon SoMol. Cells 2019; 42(6): 501-501 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.1241
Abstract : The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway is a promising target for gastric cancer (GC) treatment; however the efficacy of PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitors in GC has not yet been maximized. Additionally, the effect of autophagy regulation by PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitors has not been clearly elucidated in GC treatment. We aimed to show that our newly developed PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor, CMG002, when combined with an autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ), potently induces effective cancer cell death in Epstein?Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC) cells, where both the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and autophagy pathways play important roles in disease pathogenesis. EBV- and mock-infected AGS and NUGC3 GC cell lines were treated with CMG002 +/? CQ. PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway mediators, cellular apoptosis and autophagy markers were confirmed by Western blot assay. Cell viability was assessed using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. CMG002 effectively blocked the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway by markedly decreasing phosphorylation of AKT and its downstream mediator S6. CMG002 induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and enhanced apoptotic cell death in AGS and NUGC3 cells, particularly EBV-infected cells compared with mock-infected cells, as confirmed by flow cytometric analyses and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assays. The combination of CMG002 plus CQ synergistically increased apoptotic cell death in EBV-infected GC cell lines when compared with CMG002 alone (
Abstract : Bacterial α-type carbonic anhydrase (α-CA) is a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible and extremely rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. In this study, we report the first crystal structure of a hyperthermostable α-CA from
Abstract : Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are pacemaker cells that exhibit periodic spontaneous depolarization in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and generate pacemaker potentials. In this study, we investigated the effects of ghrelin and motilin on the pacemaker potentials of ICCs isolated from the mouse small intestine. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration, we demonstrated that ghrelin depolarized pacemaker potentials of cultured ICCs in a dose-dependent manner. The ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys] GHRP-6 completely inhibited this ghrelin-induced depolarization. Intracellular guanosine 5′-diphosphate-β-S and pre-treatment with Ca2+-free solution or thapsigargin also blocked the ghrelin-induced depolarization. To investigate the involvement of inositol triphosphate (IP3), Rho kinase, and protein kinase C (PKC) in ghrelin-mediated pacemaker potential depolarization of ICCs, we used the IP3 receptor inhibitors 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and xestospongin C, the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632, and the PKC inhibitors staurosporine, Go6976, and rottlerin. All inhibitors except rottlerin blocked the ghrelin-induced pacemaker potential depolarization of ICCs. In addition, motilin depolarized the pacemaker potentials of ICCs in a similar dose-dependent manner as ghrelin, and this was also completely inhibited by [D-Lys] GHRP-6. These results suggest that ghrelin induced the pacemaker potential depolarization through the ghrelin receptor in a G protein-, IP3-, Rho kinase-, and PKC-dependent manner via intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ regulation. In addition, motilin was able to depolarize the pacemaker potentials of ICCs through the ghrelin receptor. Therefore, ghrelin and its receptor may modulate GI motility by acting on ICCs in the murine small intestine.
Sangwoo Ham, Hyojung Kim, Seojin Hwang, Hyunook Kang, Seung Pil Yun, Sangjune Kim , Donghoon Kim, Hyun Sook Kwon , Yun-Song Lee , MyoungLae Cho, Heung-Mook Shin, Heejung Choi , Ka Young Chung, Han Seok Ko, Gum Hwa Lee, and Yunjong LeeMol. Cells 2019; 42(6): 480-494 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0091
Abstract : Aggregates of disease-causing proteins dysregulate cellular functions, thereby causing neuronal cell loss in diverse neurodegenerative diseases. Although many
Abstract : Brain cytoplasmic 200 RNA (BC200 RNA), originally identified as a neuron-specific non-coding RNA, is also observed in various cancer cells that originate from non-neural cells. Studies have revealed diverse functions of BC200 RNA in cancer cells. Accordingly, we hypothesized that BC200 RNA might be modified in cancer cells to generate cancerous BC200 RNA responsible for its cancer-specific functions. Here, we report that BC200 RNA sequences are highly heterogeneous in cancer cells by virtue of multiple adenine nucleotide insertions in the internal A-rich region. The insertion of adenine nucleotides enhances BC200 RNA-mediated translation inhibition, possibly by increasing the binding affinity of BC200 RNA for eIF4A (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A).