Yanqing Jiang, Peter Park, Sang-Min Hong, and Kiwon BanMol. Cells 2018; 41(7): 613-621 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0143
Abstract : The capacity of differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which include both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, into cardiomyocytes (CMs)
Seoung Youn Won, and Ho Min KimMol. Cells 2018; 41(7): 622-630 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0202
Abstract : Leukocyte common antigen-related protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) are cellular receptors of heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans that regulate neurite outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. LAR-RPTPs have also received particular attention as the major presynaptic hubs for synapse organization through selective binding to numerous postsynaptic adhesion partners. Recent structural studies on LAR-RPTP?mediated
Seung-Won Lee, Guangming Wu, Na Young Choi, Hye Jeong Lee, Jin Seok Bang, Yukyeong Lee, Minseong Lee, Kisung Ko, Hans R. Sch?ler, and Kinarm KoMol. Cells 2018; 41(7): 631-638 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2294
Abstract : Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) derived from mouse testis are unipotent in regard of spermatogenesis. Our previous study demonstrated that SSCs can be fully reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells, so called germline-derived pluripotent stem cells (gPS cells), on feeder cells (mouse embryonic fibroblasts), which supports SSC proliferation and induction of pluripotency. Because of an uncontrollable microenvironment caused by interactions with feeder cells, feeder-based SSC reprogramming is not suitable for elucidation of the self-reprogramming mechanism by which SSCs are converted into pluripotent stem cells. Recently, we have established a Matrigel-based SSC expansion culture system that allows long-term SSC proliferation without mouse embryonic fibroblast support. In this study, we developed a new feeder-free SSC self-reprogramming protocol based on the Matrigel-based culture system. The gPS cells generated using a feeder-free reprogramming system showed pluripotency at the molecular and cellular levels. The differentiation potential of gPS cells was confirmed
Yun-Suk Lee, Kyung-Mee Park, Lina Yu, Ho-Hyun Kwak, Hee-Jun Na, Kyung-Sun Kang, and Heung-Myong WooMol. Cells 2018; 41(7): 639-645 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2353
Abstract : Liver transplantation is recommended for patients with liver failure, but liver donors are limited. This necessitates the development of artificial livers, and hepatocytes are necessary to develop such artificial livers. Although induced hepatocyte-like cells are used in artificial livers, the characteristics of mouse induced hepatocyte-like cells (miHeps) reprogrammed with embryonic fibroblasts have not yet been clarified. Therefore, this study investigated the mechanisms underlying the survival, function, and death of miHeps. miHeps showed decreased cell viability, increased cytotoxicity, decreased hepatic function, and albumin and urea secretion at passage 14. Addition of necrostatin-1 (NEC-1) to miHeps inhibited necrosome formation and reactive oxygen species generation and increased cell survival. However, NEC-1 did not affect the hepatic function of miHeps. These results provide a basis for development of artificial livers using hepatocytes.
Seeta Poudel, and Youngseok LeeMol. Cells 2018; 41(7): 646-652 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0014
Abstract : Neurodegeneration can result in memory loss in the central nervous system (CNS) and impairment of taste and smell in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The neurodegeneration seen in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by functional loss of dopaminergic neurons. Recent studies have also found a role for dopaminergic neurons in regulating taste memory rewards in insects. To investigate how taste memories and sugar sensitivity can be affected in PD, we utilized the
Jian Guo, Huiheng Qu, Ting Shan, Yigang Chen, Ye Chen, and Jiazeng XiaMol. Cells 2018; 41(7): 653-664 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0040
Abstract : The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) binds to adenosine-uridine AU-rich elements in the 3′-untranslated region of messenger RNAs and facilitates rapid degradation of the target mRNAs. Therefore, it regulates the expression of multiple cancer and immunity-associated transcripts. Furthermore, a lack of TTP in cancer cells influences cancer progression and predicts poor survival. Although the functions of TTP on cancer cells have previously been researched, the mechanism of TTP on the interaction between cancer cells with their microenvironment remains undiscovered. In this study, we admed to determine the role of cancer cell TTP during the interaction between tumor and immune cells, specifically regulatory T cells (Tregs). We evaluate the capability of TTP to modulate the antitumor immunity of GC and explored the underlying mechanism. The overexpression of TTP in GC cells dramatically increased peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocyte (PBML) -mediated cytotoxicity against GC cells. Increased cytotoxicity against TTP-overexpressed GC cells by PBMLs was determined by Treg development and infiltration. Surprisingly, we found the stabilization of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) mRNA was declining while TTP was elevated. The PD-L1 protein level was reduced in TTP-abundant GC cells. PD-L1 gas been found to play a pivotal role in Treg development and functional maintenance in immune system. Taken together, our results suggest the overexpression of TTP in GC cells not only affects cell survival and apoptosis but also increases PBMLs -mediated cytotoxicity against GC cells to decelerate tumor progression. Moreover, we identified PD-L1 as a critical TTP-regulated factor that contributes to inhibiting antitumor immunity.
Lae-Hyeon Cho, Jinmi Yoon, Antt Htet Wai, and Gynheung AnMol. Cells 2018; 41(7): 665-675 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0148
Abstract : Rice is a facultative short-day (SD) plant in which flowering is induced under SD conditions or by other environmental factors and internal genetic programs. Overexpression of
Nayoung Lee, Jina Park, Yong Chul Bae, Jung Ho Lee, Chul Hoon Kim, and Seok Jun MoonMol. Cells 2018; 41(7): 676-683 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0179
Abstract : Cilia are highly specialized antennae-like organelles that extend from the cell surface and act as cell signaling hubs. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a specialized form of intracellular protein trafficking that is required for the assembly and maintenance of cilia. Because cilia are so important, mutations in several IFT components lead to human disease. Thus, clarifying the molecular functions of the IFT proteins is a high priority in cilia biology. Live imaging in various species and cellular preparations has proven to be an important technique in both the discovery of IFT and the mechanisms by which it functions. Live imaging of
Young Jin, Long You, Hye Jeong Kim, and Han-Woong LeeMol. Cells 2018; 41(7): 684-694 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0206
Abstract : Upregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression is an important factor in the cellular survival and cancer. Although growing evidence suggests that hTERT inhibits cellular apoptosis by telomere-independent functions, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Here, we show that hTERT contains a BH3-like motif, a short peptide sequence found in BCL-2 family proteins, and interacts with anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins MCL-1 and BCL-xL, suggesting a functional link between hTERT and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Additionally, we propose that hTERT can be categorized into the atypical BH3-only proteins that promote cellular survival, possibly due to the non-canonical interaction between hTERT and antiapoptotic proteins. Although the detailed mechanisms underlying the hTERT BH3-like motif functions and interactions between hTERT and BCL-2 family proteins have not been elucidated, this work proposes a possible connection between hTERT and BCL-2 family members and reconsiders the role of the BH3-like motif as an interaction motif.
Jeong-Oh Shin, Jong-Joo Lee, Mikyoung Kim, Youn Wook Chung, Hyehyun Min, Jae-Yoon Kim, Hyoung-Pyo Kim, and Jinwoong BokMol. Cells 2018; 41(7): 695-702 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0230
Abstract : The inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for hearing and balance. Formation of the inner ear is dependent on tight regulation of spatial and temporal expression of genes that direct a series of developmental processes. Recently, epigenetic regulation has emerged as a crucial regulator of the development of various organs. However, what roles higher-order chromatin organization and its regulator molecules play in inner ear development are unclear. CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a highly conserved 11-zinc finger protein that regulates the three-dimensional architecture of chromatin, and is involved in various gene regulation processes. To delineate the role of CTCF in inner ear development, the present study investigated inner ear-specific