Juhwan Kim, Suji Ham, Heeok Hong, Changjong Moon, and Heh-In ImMol. Cells 2016; 39(9): 645-653 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0137
Abstract : Morphine is the most potent analgesic for chronic pain, but its clinical use has been limited by the opiate’s innate tendency to produce tolerance, severe withdrawal symptoms and rewarding properties with a high risk of relapse. To understand the addictive properties of morphine, past studies have focused on relevant molecular and cellular changes in the brain, highlighting the functional roles of reward-related brain regions. Given the accumulated findings, a recent, emerging trend in morphine research is that of examining the dynamics of neuronal interactions in brain reward circuits under the influence of morphine action. In this review, we highlight recent findings on the roles of several reward circuits involved in morphine addiction based on pharmacological, molecular and physiological evidences.
Hyun-Soo Kim, Gary Fernandes, and Chang-Woo LeeMol. Cells 2016; 39(9): 654-662 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0214
Abstract : Almost all eukaryotic proteins are subject to post-translational modifications during mitosis and cell cycle, and in particular, reversible phosphorylation being a key event. The recent use of high-throughput experimental analyses has revealed that more than 70% of all eukaryotic proteins are regulated by phosphorylation; however, the mechanism of dephosphorylation, counteracting phosphorylation, is relatively unknown. Recent discoveries have shown that many of the protein phosphatases are involved in the temporal and spatial control of mitotic events, such as mitotic entry, mitotic spindle assembly, chromosome architecture changes and cohesion, and mitotic exit. This implies that certain phosphatases are tightly regulated for timely dephosphorylation of key mitotic phosphoproteins and are essential for control of various mitotic processes. This review describes the physiological and pathological roles of mitotic phosphatases, as well as the versatile role of various protein phosphatases in several mitotic events.
Dingyun You, Hongbo Zhao, Yan Wang, Yang Jiao, Minnan Lu, and Shan YanMol. Cells 2016; 39(9): 663-668 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.2267
Abstract : The oncogene nuclear receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a transcriptional coactivator, which is overexpressed in various types of human cancers, including breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating AIB1 function remain largely unknown. In this study, we present evidence demonstrating that AIB1 is acetylated by MOF in human breast cancer cells. Moreover, we also found that the acetylation of AIB1 enhances its function in promoting breast cancer cell proliferation. We further showed that the acetylation of AIB1 is required for its recruitment to E2F1 target genes by E2F1. More importantly, we found that the acetylation levels of AIB1 are greatly elevated in human breast cancer cells compared with that in non-cancerous cells. Collectively, our results shed light on the molecular mechanisms that regulate AIB1 function in breast cancer.
Syeda Ridita Sharif, Ariful Islam, and Il Soo MoonMol. Cells 2016; 39(9): 669-679 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0119
Injeong Cho, Gyu Jin Hwang, and Jeong Hoon ChoMol. Cells 2016; 39(9): 680-686 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0125
Abstract : Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial inner membrane proteins that function to dissipate proton motive force and mitochondrial membrane potential. One UCP has been identified in
Jinlong Zhao, Wenye Sun, Jing Liang, Jing Jiang, and Zhao WuMol. Cells 2016; 39(9): 687-691 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0140
Abstract : Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are powerful tools for targeted genome editing in diverse cell types and organisms. However, the highly identical TALE repeat sequences make it challenging to assemble TALEs using conventional cloning approaches, and multiple repeats in one plasmid are easily catalyzed for homologous recombination in bacteria. Although the methods for TALE assembly are constantly improving, these methods are not convenient because of laborious assembly steps or large module libraries, limiting their broad utility. To overcome the barrier of multiple assembly steps, we report a one-step system for the convenient and flexible assembly of a 180 TALE module library. This study is the first demonstration to ligate 9 mono-/dimer modules and one circular TALEN backbone vector in a one step process, generating 9.5 to 18.5 repeat sequences with an overall assembly rate higher than 50%. This system makes TALEN assembly much simpler than the conventional cloning of two DNA fragments because this strategy combines digestion and ligation into one step using circular vectors and different modules to avoid gel extraction. Therefore, this system provides a convenient tool for the application of TALEN-mediated genome editing in scientific studies and clinical trials.
Daehwan Lee, Minah Cho, Woon-young Hong, Dajeong Lim, Hyung-Chul Kim, Yong-Min Cho, Jin-Young Jeong, Bong-Hwan Choi, Younhee Ko, and Jaebum KimMol. Cells 2016; 39(9): 692-698 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0148
Abstract : Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled population-level studies for many animals to unravel the relationships between genotypic differences and traits of specific populations. The objective of this study was to perform evolutionary analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes of Korean native cattle Hanwoo in comparison to SNP data from four other cattle breeds (Jersey, Simmental, Angus, and Holstein) and four related species (pig, horse, human, and mouse) obtained from public databases through NGS-based resequencing. We analyzed population structures and differentiation levels for the five cattle breeds and estimated species-specific SNPs with their origins and phylogenetic relationships among species. In addition, we identified Hanwoo-specific genes and proteins, and determined distinct changes in protein-protein interactions among five species (cattle, pig, horse, human, mouse) in the STRING network database by additionally considering indirect protein interactions. We found that the Hanwoo population was clearly different from the other four cattle populations. There were Hanwoo-specific genes related to its meat trait. Protein interaction rewiring analysis also confirmed that there were Hanwoo-specific protein-protein interactions that might have contributed to its unique meat quality.
Soo Hwa Jang, Ah-Ram Kim, Neung-Hwa Park, Jeong Woo Park, and In-Seob HanMol. Cells 2016; 39(9): 699-704 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0149
Abstract : Developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) plays an important role in cell growth. Here we explored the linkage between DRG2 and G2/M phase checkpoint function in cell cycle progression. We observed that knockdown of DRG2 in HeLa cells affected growth in a wound-healing assay, and tumorigenicity in nude mice xenografts. Flow cytometry assays and [3H] incorporation assays indicated that G2/M phase arrest was responsible for the decreased proliferation of these cells. Knockdown of DRG2 elicited down-regulation of the major mitotic promoting factor, the cyclin B1/Cdk1 complex, but up-regulation of the cell cycle arresting proteins, Wee1, Myt1, and p21. These findings identify a novel role of DRG2 in G2/M progression.
Tackmin KwonMol. Cells 2016; 39(9): 705-713 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0159
Abstract : The efficiency of