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  • MinireviewJuly 31, 2016

    10 352 1827
    Abstract

    Abstract : Long-term immunity to many viral and bacterial pathogens requires CD8+ memory T cell development, and the induction of long-lasting CD8+ memory T cells from a na?ve, undifferentiated state is a major goal of vaccine design. Formation of the memory CD8+ T cell compartment is highly dependent on the early activation cues received by na?ve CD8+ T cells during primary infection. This review aims to highlight the cellularity of various niches within the lymph node and emphasize recent evidence suggesting that distinct types of T cell activation and differentiation occur within different immune contexts in lymphoid organs.

  • MinireviewJuly 31, 2016

    10 408 2079
    Abstract

    Abstract : Controlling the production of diverse cell/tissue types is essential for the development of multicellular organisms such as animals and plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana root, which contains distinct cells/tissues along longitudinal and radial axes, has served as an elegant model to investigate how genetic programs and environmental signals interact to produce different cell/tissue types. In the root, a series of asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) give rise to three ground tissue layers at maturity (endodermis, middle cortex, and cortex). Because the middle cortex is formed by a periclinal (parallel to the axis) ACD of the endodermis around 7 to 14 days post-germination, middle cortex formation is used as a parameter to assess maturation of the root ground tissue. Molecular, genetic, and physiological studies have revealed that the control of the timing and extent of middle cortex formation during root maturation relies on the interaction of plant hormones and transcription factors. In particular, abscisic acid and gibberellin act synergistically to regulate the timing and extent of middle cortex formation, unlike their typical antagonism. The SHORT-ROOT, SCARECROW, SCARECROW-LIKE 3, and DELLA transcription factors, all of which belong to the plant-specific GRAS family, play key roles in the regulation of middle cortex formation. Recently, two additional transcription factors, SEUSS and GA- AND ABA-RESPONSIVE ZINC FINGER, have also been characterized during ground tissue maturation. In this review, we provide a detailed account of the regulatory networks that control the timing and extent of middle cortex formation during post-embryonic root development.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2016

    8 360 918

    BK Knockout by TALEN-Mediated Gene Targeting in Osteoblasts: KCNMA1 Determines the Proliferation and Differentiation of Osteoblasts

    Hongya Hei, Jianjun Gao, Jibin Dong, Jie Tao, Lulu Tian, Wanma Pan, Hongyu Wang, and Xuemei Zhang

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(7): 530-535 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0033
    Abstract

    Abstract : Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels participate in many important physiological functions in excitable tissues such as neurons, cardiac and smooth muscles, whereas the knowledge of BK channels in bone tissues and osteoblasts remains elusive. To investigate the role of BK channels in osteoblasts, we used transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) to establish a BK knockout cell line on rat ROS17/2.8 osteoblast, and detected the proliferation and mineralization of the BK-knockout cells. Our study found that the BK-knockout cells significantly decreased the ability of proliferation and mineralization as osteoblasts, compared to the wild type cells. The overall expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes in the BK-knockout cells was significantly lower than that in wild type osteoblast cells. The BK-knockout osteoblast cell line in our study displays a phenotype decrease in osteoblast function which can mimic the pathological state of osteoblast and thus provide a working cell line as a tool for study of osteoblast function and bone related diseases.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2016

    9 176 826

    The Membrane-Bound Form of IL-17A Promotes the Growth and Tumorigenicity of Colon Cancer Cells

    Van Anh Do Thi, Sang Min Park, Hayyoung Lee, and Young Sang Kim

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(7): 536-542 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0048
    Abstract

    Abstract : Interleukin-17A is a member of the IL-17 family, and is known as CTLA8 in the mouse. It is produced by T lymphocytes and NK cells and has proinflammatory roles, inducing cytokine and chemokine production. However, its role in tumor biology remains controversial. We investigated the effects of locally produced IL-17A by transferring the gene encoding it into CT26 colon cancer cells, either in a secretory or a membrane-bound form. Expression of the membrane-bound form on CT26 cells dramatically enhanced their proliferation in vitro. The enhanced growth was shown to be due to an increased rate of cell cycle progression: after synchronizing cells by adding and withdrawing colcemid, the rate of cell cycle progression in the cells expressing the membrane-bound form of IL-17A was much faster than that of the control cells. Both secretory and membrane-bound IL-17A induced the expression of Sca-1 in the cancer cells. When tumor clones were grafted into syngeneic BALB/c mice, the tumor clones expressing the membrane-bound form IL-17A grew rapidly; those expressing the secretory form also grew faster than the wild type CT26 cells, but slower than the clones expressing the membrane-bound form. These results indicate that IL-17A promotes tumorigenicity by enhancing cell cycle progression. This finding should be considered in treating tumors and immune-related diseases.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2016

    22 234 1394
    Abstract

    Abstract : MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. The present study focused on the role of hsa-miR-144-3p in one of the neurodegenerative diseases, Parkinson’s disease (PD). Our study showed a remarkable down-regulation of miR-144-3p expression in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated SH-SY5Y cells. MiR-144-3p was then overexpressed and silenced in human SH-SY5Y cells by miRNA-mimics and miRNA-inhibitor transfections, respectively. Furthermore, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) was identified as a target gene of miR-144-3p via a luciferase reporter assay. We found that miR-144-3p overexpression significantly inhibited the protein expression of APP. Since mitochondrial dysfunction has been shown to be one of the major pathological events in PD, we also focused on the role of miR-144-3p and APP in regulating mitochondrial functions. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of miR-144-3p increased expression of the key genes involved in maintaining mitochondrial function, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). Moreover, there was also a significant increase in cellular ATP, cell viability and the relative copy number of mtDNA in the presence of miR-144-3p overexpression. In contrast, miR-144-3p silencing showed opposite effects. We also found that APP overexpression significantly decreased ATP level, cell viability, the relative copy number of mtDNA and the expression of these three genes, which reversed the effects of miR-144-3p overexpression. Taken together, these results show that miR-144-3p plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial function, and its target gene APP is also involved in this process.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2016

    7 158 1304
    Abstract

    Abstract : During meiosis, exchange of DNA segments occurs between paired homologous chromosomes in order to produce recombinant chromosomes, helping to increase genetic diversity within a species. This genetic exchange process is tightly controlled by the eukaryotic RecA homologs Rad51 and Dmc1, which are involved in strand exchange of meiotic recombination, with Rad51 participating specifically in mitotic recombination. Meiotic recombination requires an interaction between homologous chromosomes to repair programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs). In this study, we investigated the budding yeast meiosis-specific proteins Hop2 and Sae3, which function in the Dmc1-dependent pathway. This pathway mediates the homology searching and strand invasion processes. Mek1 kinase participates in switching meiotic recombination from sister bias to homolog bias after DSB formation. In the absence of Hop2 and Sae3, DSBs were produced normally, but showed defects in the DSB-to-single-end invasion transition mediated by Dmc1 and auxiliary factors, and mutant strains failed to complete proper chromosome segregation. However, in the absence of Mek1 kinase activity, Rad51-dependent recombination progressed via sister bias in the hop2Δ or sae3Δ mutants, even in the presence of Dmc1. Thus, Hop2 and Sae3 actively modulate Dmc1-dependent recombination, effectively progressing homolog bias, a process requiring Mek1 kinase activation.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2016

    3 258 972

    Paired Ig-Like Type 2 Receptor-Derived Agonist Ligands Ameliorate Inflammatory Reactions by Downregulating β1 Integrin Activity

    Kyoung-Jin Lee, Dongyoung Lim, Yeon Ho Yoo, Eun-Ji Park, Sun-Hee Lee, Birendra Kumar Yadav, Yong-Ki Lee, Jeong Hyun Park, Daejoong Kim, Kyeong Han Park, and Jang-Hee Hahn

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(7): 557-565 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0079
    Abstract

    Abstract : The paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor (PILR) family consists of two functionally opposite members, inhibitory PILRα and activating PILRβ receptors. PILRs are widely expressed in various immune cells and interact with their ligands, especially CD99 expressed on activated T cells, to participate in immune responses. Here we investigated whether PILR-derived agonists inhibit β1 integrin activity as ligands for CD99. PILR-derived peptides as well as PILR-Fc fusion proteins prevented cell adhesion to fibronectin through the regulation of β1 integrin activity. Especially, PILRpep3, a representative 3-mer peptide covering the conserved motifs of the PILR extracellular domain, prevented the clustering and activation of β1 integrin by dephosphorylating FAK and vinculin, which are major components of focal adhesion. In addition, PILRpep3 inhibited transendothelial migration of monocytes as well as endothelial cell tube formation. Furthermore, upon intraperitoneal injection of PILRpep3 into mice with collagen-induced arthritis, the inflammatory response of rheumatoid arthritis was strongly suppressed. Taken together, these results suggest that PILR-derived agonist ligands may prevent the inflammatory reactions of rheumatoid arthritis by activating CD99.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2016

    9 426 1461

    LAMP-3 (Lysosome-Associated Membrane Protein 3) Promotes the Intracellular Proliferation of Salmonella typhimurium

    Eun-Ju Lee, Kwan-Sik Park, In-Sook Jeon, Jae-Woon Choi, Sang-Jeon Lee, Hyun E. Choy, Ki-Duk Song, Hak-Kyo Lee, and Joong-Kook Choi

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(7): 566-572 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0112
    Abstract

    Abstract : Lysosomes are cellular organelles containing diverse classes of catabolic enzymes that are implicated in diverse cellular processes including phagocytosis, autophagy, lipid transport, and aging. Lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2) are major glycoproteins important for maintaining lysosomal integrity, pH, and catabolism. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 are constitutively expressed in Salmonella-infected cells and are recruited to Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs) as well as Salmonella-induced filaments (Sifs) that promote the survival and proliferation of the Salmonella. LAMP-3, also known as DC-LAMP/CD208, is a member of the LAMP family of proteins, but its role during Salmonella infection remains unclear. DNA microarray analysis identified LAMP-3 as one of the genes responding to LPS stimulation in THP-1 macrophage cells. Subsequent analyses reveal that LPS and Salmonella induced the expression of LAMP-3 at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Confocal Super resolution N-SIM imaging revealed that LAMP-3, like LAMP-2, shifts its localization from the cell surface to alongside Salmonella. Knockdown of LAMP-3 by specific siRNAs decreased the number of Salmonella recovered from the infected cells. Therefore, we conclude that LAMP-3 is induced by Salmonella infection and recruited to the Salmonella pathogen for intracellular proliferation.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2016

    7 250 1101

    A Pair of Oviduct-Born Pickpocket Neurons Important for Egg-Laying in Drosophila melanogaster

    Hyunjin Lee, Hyun Woo Choi, Chen Zhang, Zee-Yong Park, and Young-Joon Kim

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(7): 573-579 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0121
    Abstract

    Abstract : During copulation, male Drosophila transfers Sex Peptide (SP) to females where it acts on internal sensory neurons expressing pickpocket (ppk). These neurons induce a post-mating response (PMR) that includes elevated egg-laying and refractoriness to re-mating. Exactly how ppk neurons regulate the different aspects of the PMR, however, remains unclear. Here, we identify a small subset of the ppk neurons which requires expression of a pre-mRNA splicing factor CG3542 for egg-laying, but not refractoriness to mating. We identify two CG3542-ppk expressing neurons that innervate the upper oviduct and appear to be responsible for normal egg-laying. Our results suggest specific subsets of the ppk neurons are responsible for each PMR component.

Mol. Cells
Aug 31, 2022 Vol.45 No.8
COVER PICTURE
Cryo-EM structure of human porphyrin transporter ABCB6 (main figure) shows that binding of hemin (inset, magenta) in concert with two glutathione molecules (cyan) primes ABCB6 for high ATP turnover (Kim et al., pp. 575-587).

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