Tara Capece, and Minsoo KimMol. Cells 2016; 39(7): 515-523 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0089
Abstract : Long-term immunity to many viral and bacterial pathogens requires CD8+ memory T cell development, and the induction of long-lasting CD8+ memory T cells from a na?ve, undifferentiated state is a major goal of vaccine design. Formation of the memory CD8+ T cell compartment is highly dependent on the early activation cues received by na?ve CD8+ T cells during primary infection. This review aims to highlight the cellularity of various niches within the lymph node and emphasize recent evidence suggesting that distinct types of T cell activation and differentiation occur within different immune contexts in lymphoid organs.
Ji Won Choi, and Jun LimMol. Cells 2016; 39(7): 524-529 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0105
Abstract : Controlling the production of diverse cell/tissue types is essential for the development of multicellular organisms such as animals and plants. The
Hongya Hei, Jianjun Gao, Jibin Dong, Jie Tao, Lulu Tian, Wanma Pan, Hongyu Wang, and Xuemei ZhangMol. Cells 2016; 39(7): 530-535 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0033
Abstract : Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels participate in many important physiological functions in excitable tissues such as neurons, cardiac and smooth muscles, whereas the knowledge of BK channels in bone tissues and osteoblasts remains elusive. To investigate the role of BK channels in osteoblasts, we used transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) to establish a BK knockout cell line on rat ROS17/2.8 osteoblast, and detected the proliferation and mineralization of the BK-knockout cells. Our study found that the BK-knockout cells significantly decreased the ability of proliferation and mineralization as osteoblasts, compared to the wild type cells. The overall expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes in the BK-knockout cells was significantly lower than that in wild type osteoblast cells. The BK-knockout osteoblast cell line in our study displays a phenotype decrease in osteoblast function which can mimic the pathological state of osteoblast and thus provide a working cell line as a tool for study of osteoblast function and bone related diseases.
Van Anh Do Thi, Sang Min Park, Hayyoung Lee, and Young Sang KimMol. Cells 2016; 39(7): 536-542 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0048
Abstract : Interleukin-17A is a member of the IL-17 family, and is known as CTLA8 in the mouse. It is produced by T lymphocytes and NK cells and has proinflammatory roles, inducing cytokine and chemokine production. However, its role in tumor biology remains controversial. We investigated the effects of locally produced IL-17A by transferring the gene encoding it into CT26 colon cancer cells, either in a secretory or a membrane-bound form. Expression of the membrane-bound form on CT26 cells dramatically enhanced their proliferation
Kuo Li, Junling Zhang, Chunxue Ji, and Lixuan WangMol. Cells 2016; 39(7): 543-549 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0050
Abstract : MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. The present study focused on the role of hsa-miR-144-3p in one of the neurodegenerative diseases, Parkinson’s disease (PD). Our study showed a remarkable down-regulation of miR-144-3p expression in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated SH-SY5Y cells. MiR-144-3p was then overexpressed and silenced in human SH-SY5Y cells by miRNA-mimics and miRNA-inhibitor transfections, respectively. Furthermore, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) was identified as a target gene of miR-144-3p via a luciferase reporter assay. We found that miR-144-3p overexpression significantly inhibited the protein expression of APP. Since mitochondrial dysfunction has been shown to be one of the major pathological events in PD, we also focused on the role of miR-144-3p and APP in regulating mitochondrial functions. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of miR-144-3p increased expression of the key genes involved in maintaining mitochondrial function, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). Moreover, there was also a significant increase in cellular ATP, cell viability and the relative copy number of mtDNA in the presence of miR-144-3p overexpression. In contrast, miR-144-3p silencing showed opposite effects. We also found that APP overexpression significantly decreased ATP level, cell viability, the relative copy number of mtDNA and the expression of these three genes, which reversed the effects of miR-144-3p overexpression. Taken together, these results show that miR-144-3p plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial function, and its target gene APP is also involved in this process.
Hong-Rae Cho, Yoon-Ju Kong, Soo-Gil Hong, and Keun Pil KimMol. Cells 2016; 39(7): 550-556 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0069
Abstract : During meiosis, exchange of DNA segments occurs between paired homologous chromosomes in order to produce recombinant chromosomes, helping to increase genetic diversity within a species. This genetic exchange process is tightly controlled by the eukaryotic RecA homologs Rad51 and Dmc1, which are involved in strand exchange of meiotic recombination, with Rad51 participating specifically in mitotic recombination. Meiotic recombination requires an interaction between homologous chromosomes to repair programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs). In this study, we investigated the budding yeast meiosis-specific proteins Hop2 and Sae3, which function in the Dmc1-dependent pathway. This pathway mediates the homology searching and strand invasion processes. Mek1 kinase participates in switching meiotic recombination from sister bias to homolog bias after DSB formation. In the absence of Hop2 and Sae3, DSBs were produced normally, but showed defects in the DSB-to-single-end invasion transition mediated by Dmc1 and auxiliary factors, and mutant strains failed to complete proper chromosome segregation. However, in the absence of Mek1 kinase activity, Rad51-dependent recombination progressed via sister bias in the
Kyoung-Jin Lee, Dongyoung Lim, Yeon Ho Yoo, Eun-Ji Park, Sun-Hee Lee, Birendra Kumar Yadav, Yong-Ki Lee, Jeong Hyun Park, Daejoong Kim, Kyeong Han Park, and Jang-Hee HahnMol. Cells 2016; 39(7): 557-565 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0079
Abstract : The paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor (PILR) family consists of two functionally opposite members, inhibitory PILRα and activating PILRβ receptors. PILRs are widely expressed in various immune cells and interact with their ligands, especially CD99 expressed on activated T cells, to participate in immune responses. Here we investigated whether PILR-derived agonists inhibit β1 integrin activity as ligands for CD99. PILR-derived peptides as well as PILR-Fc fusion proteins prevented cell adhesion to fibronectin through the regulation of β1 integrin activity. Especially, PILRpep3, a representative 3-mer peptide covering the conserved motifs of the PILR extracellular domain, prevented the clustering and activation of β1 integrin by dephosphorylating FAK and vinculin, which are major components of focal adhesion. In addition, PILRpep3 inhibited transendothelial migration of monocytes as well as endothelial cell tube formation. Furthermore, upon intraperitoneal injection of PILRpep3 into mice with collagen-induced arthritis, the inflammatory response of rheumatoid arthritis was strongly suppressed. Taken together, these results suggest that PILR-derived agonist ligands may prevent the inflammatory reactions of rheumatoid arthritis by activating CD99.
Eun-Ju Lee, Kwan-Sik Park, In-Sook Jeon, Jae-Woon Choi, Sang-Jeon Lee, Hyun E. Choy, Ki-Duk Song, Hak-Kyo Lee, and Joong-Kook ChoiMol. Cells 2016; 39(7): 566-572 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0112
Abstract : Lysosomes are cellular organelles containing diverse classes of catabolic enzymes that are implicated in diverse cellular processes including phagocytosis, autophagy, lipid transport, and aging. Lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2) are major glycoproteins important for maintaining lysosomal integrity, pH, and catabolism. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 are constitutively expressed in
Hyunjin Lee, Hyun Woo Choi, Chen Zhang, Zee-Yong Park, and Young-Joon KimMol. Cells 2016; 39(7): 573-579 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0121
Abstract : During copulation, male