Seokjae Park, Krishna Chaitanya Sadanala, and Eun-Kyoung KimMol. Cells 2015; 38(7): 587-596 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0126
Abstract : Obesity and diabetes arise from an intricate interplay between both genetic and environmental factors. It is well recognized that obesity plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Yet, the exact mechanism of the connection between obesity and diabetes is still not completely understood. Metabolomics is an analytical approach that aims to detect and quantify small metabolites. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the application of metabolomics to the identification of disease biomarkers, with a number of well-known biomarkers identified. Metabolomics is a potent approach to unravel the intricate relationships between metabolism, obesity and progression to diabetes and, at the same time, has potential as a clinical tool for risk evaluation and monitoring of disease. Moreover, metabolomics applications have revealed alterations in the levels of metabolites related to obesity-associated diabetes. This review focuses on the part that metabolomics has played in elucidating the roles of metabolites in the regulation of systemic metabolism relevant to obesity and diabetes. It also explains the possible metabolic relation and association between the two diseases. The metabolites with altered profiles in individual disorders and those that are specifically and similarly altered in both disorders are classified, categorized and summarized.
Gyeong Mee YoonMol. Cells 2015; 38(7): 597-603 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0152
Abstract : Biosynthesis of the phytohormone ethylene is under tight regulation to satisfy the need for appropriate levels of ethylene in plants in response to exogenous and endogenous stimuli. The enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of ethylene biosynthesis, plays a central role to regulate ethylene production through changes in ACS gene expression levels and the activity of the enzyme. Together with molecular genetic studies suggesting the roles of post-translational modification of the ACS, newly emerging evidence strongly suggests that the regulation of ACS protein stability is an alternative mechanism that controls ethylene production, in addition to the transcriptional regulation of ACS genes. In this review, recent new insight into the regulation of ACS protein turnover is highlighted, with a special focus on the roles of phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and novel components that regulate the turnover of ACS proteins. The prospect of cross-talk between ethylene biosynthesis and other signaling pathways to control turnover of the ACS protein is also considered.
Su-Mi Woo, Hae-Soon Lim, Kyung-Yi Jeong, Seon-Mi Kim, Won-Jae Kim, and Ji-Yeon JungMol. Cells 2015; 38(7): 604-609 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.2318
Abstract : The active metabolite of vitamin D such as 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) is a well-known key regulatory factor in bone metabolism. However, little is known about the potential of vitamin D as an odontogenic inducer in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs)
Tamanna Zerin, Minjung Lee, Woong Sik Jang, Kung-Woo Nam, and Ho-yeon SongMol. Cells 2015; 38(7): 610-615 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.2328
Abstract : Alveolar epithelial cells have been functionally implicated in
Tae Hoon Kwon, Hyunwoo Jung, Eun Jeong Cho, Ji Hoon Jeong, and Uy Dong SohnMol. Cells 2015; 38(7): 616-623 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.2357
Abstract : P2 receptors are membrane-bound receptors for extracellular nucleotides such as ATP and UTP. P2 receptors have been classified as ligand-gated ion channels or P2X receptors and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors. Recently, purinergic signaling has begun to attract attention as a potential therapeutic target for a variety of diseases especially associated with gastroenterology. This study determined the ATP and UTP-induced receptor signaling mechanism in feline esophageal contraction. Contraction of dispersed feline esophageal smooth muscle cells was measured by scanning micrometry. Phosphorylation of MLC20 was determined by western blot analysis. ATP and UTP elicited maximum esophageal contraction at 30 s and 10 μM concentration. Contraction of dispersed cells treated with 10 μM ATP was inhibited by nifedipine. However, contraction induced by 0.1 μM ATP, 0.1 μM UTP and 10 μM UTP was decreased by U73122, chelerythrine, ML-9, PTX and GDPβS. Contraction induced by 0.1 μM ATP and UTP was inhibited by Gαi3 or Gαq antibodies and by PLCβ1 or PLCβ3 antibodies. Phosphorylated MLC20 was increased by ATP and UTP treatment. In conclusion, esophageal contraction induced by ATP and UTP was preferentially mediated by P2Y receptors coupled to Gαi3 and G q proteins, which activate PLCβ1 and PLCβ3. Subsequently, increased intracellular Ca2+ and activated PKC triggered stimulation of MLC kinase and inhibition of MLC phosphatase. Finally, increased pMLC20 generated esophageal contraction.
Chan Hyun Na, Ji Hye Hong, Wan Sup Kim, Selina Rahman Shanta, Joo Yong Bang, Dongmin Park, Hark Kyun Kim, and Kwang Pyo KimMol. Cells 2015; 38(7): 624-629 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0013
Abstract : Since the emergence of proteomics methods, many proteins specific for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have been identified. Despite their usefulness for the specific diagnosis of RCC, such proteins do not provide spatial information on the diseased tissue. Therefore, the identification of cancer-specific proteins that include information on their specific location is needed. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) based imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has emerged as a new tool for the analysis of spatial distribution as well as identification of either proteins or small molecules in tissues. In this report, surgical tissue sections of papillary RCC were analyzed using MALDI-IMS. Statistical analysis revealed several discriminative cancer-specific
Young Hwi Kwon, Kausik Bishayee, Ataur Rahman, Jae Seung Hong, Soon-Sung Lim, and Sung-Oh HuhMol. Cells 2015; 38(7): 630-637 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0030
Xian Zhang, Qinggong Guo, Jingtao Chen, and Zhaohui ChenMol. Cells 2015; 38(7): 638-642 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0037
Abstract : Quercetin can suppress osteosarcoma cell growth and metastasis. However, other effects of quercetin on osteosarcoma remain largely unknown. This research aims to evaluate the effects of quercetin in combination with cisplatin as treatment for osteosarcoma and investigate its regulatory mechanism. Cell viability and apoptosis in 143B cell line were determined after treatment with quercetin and/or cisplatin. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to determine the RNA or protein expression levels. Moreover, transwell assay was used to evaluate metastasis. Furthermore, rescue experiments were performed to investigate the potential regulatory mechanism of the treatment. Results showed that quercetin with concentration that was equal to or greater than 10 μM inhibited 143B proliferation, while 5 μM quercetin enhanced the cisplatin sensitivity of 143B cells. Expression of miR-217 was upregulated after quercetin and/or cisplatin treatment, while its target KRAS was downregulated both at mRNA and protein levels. MiR-217 knockdown led to the loss of enhanced cisplatin sensitivity while miR-217 overexpression showed the opposite effects, indicating that quercetin regulated cisplatin sensitivity by modulating the miR-217-KRAS axis. In conclusion, 5 μM quercetin enhanced the cisplatin sensitivity by modulating the miR-217-KRAS axis. This finding suggests that quercetin may be administered with cisplatin to improve the treatment for osteosarcoma.
Woochul Chang, Ran Kim, Sang In Park, Yu Jin Jung, Onju Ham, Jihyun Lee, Ji Hyeong Kim, Sekyung Oh, Min Young Lee, Jongmin Kim, Moon-Seo Park, Yong-An Chung, Ki-Chul Hwang, and Lee-So MaengMol. Cells 2015; 38(7): 643-650 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0050
Abstract : The use of conditioned medium from mesenchymal stem cells may be a feasible approach for regeneration of bone defects through secretion of various components of mesenchymal stem cells such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Mesenchymal stem cells secrete and accumulate multiple factors in conditioned medium under specific physiological conditions. In this study, we investigated whether the conditioned medium collected under hypoxic condition could effectively influence bone regeneration through enhanced migration and adhesion of endogenous mesenchymal stem cells. Cell migration and adhesion abilities were increased through overexpression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in hypoxic conditioned medium treated group. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was upregulated by microRNA-221 in mesenchymal stem cells because microRNAs are key regulators of various biological functions via gene expression. To investigate the effects
Horim LeeMol. Cells 2015; 38(7): 651-656 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0055
Abstract : Plant growth and development are coordinately orchestrated by environmental cues and phytohormones. Light acts as a key environmental factor for fundamental plant growth and physiology through photosensory phytochromes and underlying molecular mechanisms. Although phytochromes are known to possess serine/threonine protein kinase activities, whether they trigger a signal transduction pathway via an intracellular protein kinase network remains unknown. In analyses of