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  • MinireviewJune 30, 2015

    137 839 4917
    Abstract

    Abstract : Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations.

  • MinireviewJune 30, 2015

    31 405 1739

    Role of Sphingolipids and Metabolizing Enzymes in Hematological Malignancies

    Kazuyuki Kitatani, Makoto Taniguchi, and Toshiro Okazaki

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(6): 482-495 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0118
    Abstract

    Abstract : Sphingolipids such as ceramide, sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingomyelin have been emerging as bioactive lipids since ceramide was reported to play a role in human leukemia HL-60 cell differentiation and death. Recently, it is well-known that ceramide acts as an inducer of cell death, that sphingomyelin works as a regulator for microdomain function of the cell membrane, and that sphingosine-1-phosphate plays a role in cell survival/proliferation. The lipids are metabolized by the specific enzymes, and each metabolite could be again returned to the original form by the reverse action of the different enzyme or after a long journey of many metabolizing/synthesizing pathways. In addition, the metabolites may serve as reciprocal bio-modulators like the rheostat between ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate. Therefore, the change of lipid amount in the cells, the subcellular localization and the downstream signal in a specific subcellular organelle should be clarified to understand the pathobiological significance of sphingolipids when extracellular stimulation induces a diverse of cell functions such as cell death, proliferation and migration. In this review, we focus on how sphingolipids and their metabolizing enzymes cooperatively exert their function in proliferation, migration, autophagy and death of hematopoetic cells, and discuss the way developing a novel therapeutic device through the regulation of sphingolipids for effectively inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell death in hematological malignancies such as leukemia, malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2015

    9 261 686
    Abstract

    Abstract : A variant peak was detected in the analysis of RP-HPLC of rHu-EPO, which has about 7% relative content. Fractions of the main and the variant peaks were pooled separately and further analyzed to identify the molecular structure of the variant peak. Total mass analysis for each peak fraction using ESI-TOF MS shows differences in molecular mass. The fraction of the main peak tends to result in higher molecular masses than the fraction of the variant. The detected masses for the variant are about 600?1000 Da smaller than those for the main peak. Peptide mapping analysis for each peak fraction using Asp-N and Glu-C shows differences in O-glycopeptide profiles at Ser126. The O-glycopeptides were not detected in the fraction of the variant. It is concluded that the variant peak is non-O-glycosylated rHu-EPO and the main peak is fully O-glycosylated rHu-EPO at Ser126.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2015

    7 311 866
    Abstract

    Abstract : Arabidopsis Shaggy-like protein kinases (ASKs) are Arabidopsis thaliana homologs of glycogen synthase kinase 3/SHAGGY-like kinases (GSK3/SGG), which are comprised of 10 genes with diverse functions. To dissect the function of ASKβ (AtSK32), ASKβ antisense transgenic plants were generated, revealing the effects of ASKβ down-regulation in Arabidopsis. Suppression of ASKβ expression specifically interfered with pollen development and fertility without altering the plants’ vegetative phenotypes, which differed from the phenotypes reported for Arabidopsis plants defective in other ASK members. The strength of these phenotypes showed an inverse correlation with the expression levels of ASKβ and its co-expressed genes. In the aborted pollen of ASKβ antisense plants, loss of nuclei and shrunken cytoplasm began to appear at the bicellular stage of microgametogenesis. The in silico analysis of promoter and the expression characteristics implicate ASKβ is associated with the expression of genes known to be involved in sperm cell differentiation. We speculate that ASKβ indirectly affects the transcription of its co-expressed genes through the phosphorylation of its target proteins during late pollen development.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2015

    68 394 1243
    Abstract

    Abstract : Controlled release of medications remains the most convenient way to deliver drugs. In this study, we precipitated gold nanoparticles with quercetin. We loaded gold-quercetin into poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (NQ) and tested the biological activity of NQ on HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells to acquire the sustained release property. We determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy that NQ effectively caused conformational changes in DNA and modulated different proteins related to epigenetic modifications and c ell cycle control. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA damage, and caspase 3 activity were analyzed by flow cytometry, and the expression profiles of different anti- and pro-apoptotic as well as epigenetic signals were studied by immunoblotting. A cytotoxicity assay indicated that NQ preferentially killed cancer cells, compared to normal cells. NQ interacted with HepG2 cell DNA and reduced histone deacetylases to control cell proliferation and arrest the cell cycle at the sub-G stage. Activities of cell cycle-related proteins, such as p21WAF, cdk1, and pAkt, were modulated. NQ induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells by activating p53-ROS crosstalk and induces epigenetic modifications leading to inhibited proliferation and cell cycle arrest.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2015

    30 279 1250

    The Histone Methyltransferase Inhibitor BIX01294 Inhibits HIF-1α Stability and Angiogenesis

    Su Young Oh, Ji Yoon Seok, Young Sun Choi, Sung Hee Lee, Jong-Sup Bae, and You Mie Lee

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(6): 528-534 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0026
    Abstract

    Abstract : Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a key regulator of tumor growth and angiogenesis. Recent studies have shown that, BIX01294, a G9a histone methyltransferase (HMT)-specific inhibitor, induces apoptosis and inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer cells. However, not many studies have investigated whether inhibition of G9a HMT can modulate HIF-1α stability and angiogenesis. Here, we show that BIX01294 dose-dependently decreases levels of HIF-1α in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The half-life of HIF-1α, expression of proline hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), hydroxylated HIF-1α and von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) under hypoxic conditions were decreased by BIX01294. The mRNA expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also significantly reduced by BIX01294 under hypoxic conditions in HepG2 cells. BIX01294 remarkably decreased angiogenic activity induced by VEGF in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, as demonstrated by assays using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), mouse aortic rings, and chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs), respectively. Furthermore, BIX01294 suppressed VEGF-induced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) activity and inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and paxillin in HUVECs. In addition, BIX01294 inhibited VEGF-induced formation of actin cytoskeletal stress fibers. In conclusion, we demonstrated that BIX01294 inhibits HIF-1α stability and VEGF-induced angiogenesis through the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway and actin cytoskeletal remodeling, indicating a promising approach for developing novel therapeutics to stop tumor progression.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2015

    12 300 798

    Odorant Stimulation Promotes Survival of Rodent Olfactory Receptor Neurons via PI3K/Akt Activation and Bcl-2 Expression

    So Yeun Kim, Seung-Jun Yoo, Gabriele V Ronnett, Eun-Kyoung Kim, and Cheil Moon

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(6): 535-539 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0038
    Abstract

    Abstract : Olfactory stimulation activates multiple signaling cascades in order to mediate activity-driven changes in gene expression that promote neuronal survival. To date, the mechanisms involved in activity-dependent olfactory neuronal survival have yet to be fully elucidated. In the current study, we observed that olfactory sensory stimulation, which caused neuronal activation, promoted activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and the expression of Bcl-2, which were responsible for olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) survival. We demonstrated that Bcl-2 expression increased after odorant stimulation both in vivo and in vitro. We also showed that odorant stimulation activated Akt, and that Akt activation was completely blocked by incubation with both a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) and Akt1 small interfering RNA. Moreover, blocking the PI3K/Akt pathway diminished the odorant-induced Bcl-2 expression, as well as the effects on odorant-induced ORN survival. A temporal difference was noted between the activation of Akt1 and the expression of Bcl-2 following odorant stimulation. Blocking the PI3K/Akt pathway did not affect ORN survival in the time range prior to the increase in Bcl-2 expression, implying that these two events, activation of the PI3K pathway and Bcl-2 induction, were tightly connected to promote post-translational ORN survival. Collectively, our results indicated that olfactory activity activated PI3K/Akt, induced Bcl-2, and promoted long term ORN survival as a result.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2015

    4 180 697
    Abstract

    Abstract : Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting approximately 5% of children. However, the neural mechanisms underlying its development and treatment are yet to be elucidated. In this study, we report that an ADHD mouse model, which harbors a deletion in the Git1 locus, exhibits severe astrocytosis in the globus pallidus (GP) and thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), which send modulatory GABAergic inputs to the thalamus. A moderate level of astrocytosis was displayed in other regions of the basal ganglia pathway, including the ventrobasal thalamus and cortex, but not in other brain regions, such as the caudate putamen, basolateral amygdala, and hippocampal CA1. This basal ganglia circuit-selective astrocytosis was detected in both in adult (2?3 months old) and juvenile (4 weeks old) Git1?/? mice, suggesting a developmental origin. Astrocytes play an active role in the developing synaptic circuit; therefore, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of synaptic markers. We detected increased and decreased levels of GABA and parvalbumin (PV), respectively, in the GP. This suggests that astrocytosis may alter synaptic transmission in the basal ganglia. Intriguingly, increased GABA expression colocalized with the astrocyte marker, GFAP, indicative of an astrocytic origin. Collectively, these results suggest that defects in basal ganglia circuitry, leading to impaired inhibitory modulation of the thalamus, are neural correlates for the ADHD-associated behavioral manifestations in Git1?/? mice.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2015

    7 363 857

    Expression Analyses Revealed Thymic Stromal Co-Transporter/Slc46A2 Is in Stem Cell Populations and Is a Putative Tumor Suppressor

    Ki Yeon Kim, Gwanghee Lee, Minsang Yoon, Eun Hye Cho, Chan-Sik Park, and Moon Gyo Kim

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(6): 548-561 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0044
    Abstract

    Abstract : By combining conventional single cell analysis with flow cytometry and public database searches with bioinformatics tools, we extended the expression profiling of thymic stromal cotransporter (TSCOT), Slc46A2/Ly110, that was shown to be expressed in bipotent precursor and cortical thymic epithelial cells. Genome scale analysis verified TSCOT expression in thymic tissue- and cell type- specific fashion and is also expressed in some other epithelial tissues including skin and lung. Coexpression profiling with genes, Foxn1 and Hoxa3, revealed the role of TSCOT during the organogenesis. TSCOT expression was detected in all thymic epithelial cells (TECs), but not in the CD31+ endothelial cell lineage in fetal thymus. In addition, ABC transporter-dependent side population and Sca-1+ fetal TEC populations both contain TSCOT-expressing cells, indicating TEC stem cells express TSCOT. TSCOT expression was identified as early as in differentiating embryonic stem cells. TSCOT expression is not under the control of Foxn1 since TSCOT is present in the thymic rudiment of nude mice. By searching variations in the expression levels, TSCOT is positively associated with Grhl3 and Irf6. Cytokines such as IL1b, IL22 and IL24 are the potential regulators of the TSCOT expression. Surprisingly, we found TSCOT expression in the lung is diminished in lung cancers, suggesting TSCOT may be involved in the suppression of lung tumor development. Based on these results, a model for TEC differentiation from the stem cells was proposed in context of multiple epithelial organ formation.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2015

    24 213 891
    Abstract

    Abstract : We previously reported the role of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in response to anti-cancer drugs. The decreased expression of HDAC3 in anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell line is responsible for the resistance to anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we investigated molecular mechanisms associated with regulation of HDAC3 expression. MG132, an inhibitor of proteasomal degradation, induced the expression of HDAC3 in various anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. Ubiquitination of HDAC3 was observed in various anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. HDAC3 showed an interaction with SIAH2, an ubiquitin E3 ligase, that has increased expression in various anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. miRNA array analysis showed the decreased expression of miR-335 in these cells. Targetscan analysis predicted the binding of miR-335 to the 3′-UTR of SIAH2. miR-335-mediated increased sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs was associated with its effect on HDAC3 and SIAH2 expression. miR-335 exerted apoptotic effects and inhibited ubiquitination of HDAC3 in anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. miR-335 negatively regulated the invasion, migration, and growth rate of cancer cells. The mouse xenograft model showed that miR-335 negatively regulated the tumorigenic potential of cancer cells. The down-regulation of SIAH2 conferred sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs. The results of the study indicated that the miR-335/SIAH2/HDAC3 axis regulates the response to anti-cancer drugs.

Mol. Cells
Jul 31, 2022 Vol.45 No.7
COVER PICTURE
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells capable of differentiating into mesodermal lineages like adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic. Alcian blue-positive extracellular matrix secreted by chondrocytes in the lacuna confirmed the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs (Bashyal et al., pp. 479-494).

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