Jun-Dae Kim, and Suk-Won JinMol. Cells 2014; 37(7): 503-510 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0108
Abstract : Lymphatic vessels provide essential roles in maintaining fluid homeostasis and lipid absorption. Dysfunctions of the lymphatic vessels lead to debilitating pathological conditions, collectively known as lymphedema. In addition, lymphatic vessels are a critical moderator for the onset and progression of diverse human diseases including metastatic cancer and obesity. Despite their clinical importance, there is no currently effective pharmacological therapy to regulate functions of lymphatic vessels. Recent efforts to manipulate the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C (VEGFC) pathway, which is arguably the most important signaling pathway regulating lymphatic endothelial cells, to alleviate lymphedema yielded largely mixed results, necessitating identification of new targetable signaling pathways for therapeutic intervention for lymphedema. Zebrafish, a relatively new model system to investigate lymphatic biology, appears to be an ideal model to identify novel therapeutic targets for lymphatic biology. In this review, we will provide an overview of our current understanding of the lymphatic vessels in vertebrates, and discuss zebrafish as a promising in vivo model to study lymphatic vessels.
Su-Eon Sim, Joseph Bakes, and Bong-Kiun KaangMol. Cells 2014; 37(7): 511-517 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0132
Abstract : MicroRNAs are non-coding short (~23 nucleotides) RNAs that mediate post-transcriptional regulation through sequence-specific gene silencing. The role of miRNAs in neuronal development, synapse formation and synaptic plasticity has been highlighted. However, the role of neuronal activity on miRNA regulation has been less focused. Neuronal activity-dependent regulation of miRNA may fine-tune gene expression in response to synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Here, we provide an overview of miRNA regulation by neuronal activity including high-throughput screening studies. We also discuss the possible molecular mechanisms of activity-dependent induction and turnover of miRNAs.
Hye-Jeong Cho, and Moon Jung SongMol. Cells 2014; 37(7): 518-525 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0024
Abstract : Gammaherpesvirus (γHV) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) has been implicated in diverse neurological diseases, and murine γHV-68 (MHV-68) is known to persist in the brain after cerebral infection. The underlying molecular mechanisms of persistency of virus in the brain are poorly understood. Here, we characterized a unique pattern of MHV-68 persistent infection in neuroblastoma cells. On infection with MHV-68, both murine and human neuroblastoma cells expressed viral lytic proteins and produced virions. However, the infected cells survived productive infection and could be cultured for multiple passages without affecting their cellular growth. Latent infection as well as productive replication was established in these prolonged cultures, and lytic replication was further increased by treatment with lytic inducers. Our results provide a novel system to study persistent infection of γHVs in vitro following de novo infection and suggest application of MHV-68 as a potential gene transfer vector to the brain.1
Ida Rachel Rajiah, and Jeremy SkepperMol. Cells 2014; 37(7): 526-531 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0077
Abstract : Human PARP family consists of 17 members of which PARP-1 is a prominent member and plays a key role in DNA repair pathways. It has an N-terminal DNA-binding domain (DBD) encompassing the nuclear localisation signal (NLS), central automodification domain and C-terminal catalytic domain. PARP-1 accounts for majority of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymer synthesis that upon binding to numerous proteins including PARP itself modulates their activity. Reduced PARP-1 activity in ageing human samples and its deficiency leading to telomere shortening has been reported. Hence for cell survival, maintenance of genomic integrity and longevity presence of intact PARP-1 in the nucleus is paramount. Although localisation of full-length and truncated PARP-1 in PARP-1 proficient cells is well documented, subcellular distribution of PARP-1 fragments in the absence of endogenous PARP-1 is not known. Here we report the differential localisation of PARP-1 N-terminal fragment encompassing NLS in PARP-1+/+ and PARP-1?/? mouse embryo fibroblasts by live imaging of cells transiently expressing EGFP tagged fragment. In PARP-1+/+ cells the fragment localises to the nuclei presenting a granular pattern. Furthermore, it is densely packaged in the midsections of the nucleus. In contrast, the fragment localises exclusively to the cytoplasm in PARP-1?/? cells. Flourescence intensity analysis further confirmed this observation indicating that the N-terminal fragment requires endogenous PARP-1 for its nuclear transport. Our study illustrates the trafficking role of PARP-1 independently of its enzymatic activity and highlights the possibility that full-length PARP-1 may play a key role in the nuclear transport of its siblings and other molecules.
Muho Han, Chi-Yeol Kim, Junok Lee, Sang-Kyu Lee, and Jong-Seong JeonMol. Cells 2014; 37(7): 532-539 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0128
Abstract : We isolated a rice (
Heejin Lee, Chongtae Kim, Ja-Lok Ku, Wook Kim, Sungjoo Kim Yoon, Hyo-Jeong Kuh, Jeong-Hwa Lee, Suk Woo Nam, and Eun Kyung LeeMol. Cells 2014; 37(7): 540-546 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0151
Abstract : Several types of genetic and epigenetic regulation have been implicated in the development of drug resistance, one significant challenge for cancer therapy. Although changes in the expression of non-coding RNA are also responsible for drug resistance, the specific identities and roles of them remain to be elucidated. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a type of ncRNA (> 200 nt) that influence the regulation of gene expression in various ways. In this study, we aimed to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs in 5-fluorouracil-resistant colon cancer cells. Using two pairs of 5-FU-resistant cells derived from the human colon cancer cell lines SNU-C4 and SNU-C5, we analyzed the expression of 90 lncRNAs by qPCR-based profiling and found that 19 and 23 lncRNAs were differentially expressed in SNU-C4R and SNU-C5R cells, respectively. We confirmed that snaR and BACE1AS were downregulated in resistant cells. To further investigate the effects of snaR on cell growth, cell viability and cell cycle were analyzed after transfection of siRNAs targeting snaR. Down-regulation of snaR decreased cell death after 5-FU treatment, which indicates that snaR loss decreases
Yuchae Jung, Heejoo Park, Hui-Yuan Zhao, Raok Jeon, Jae-Ha Ryu, and Woo-Young KimMol. Cells 2014; 37(7): 547-553 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0158
Abstract : Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most common brain malignancies and has a very poor prognosis. Recent evidence suggests that the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC) in GBM and the rare CSC subpopulation that is resistant to chemotherapy may be responsible for the treatment failure and unfavorable prognosis of GBM. A garlic-derived compound, Z-ajoene, has shown a range of biological activities, including anti-proliferative effects on several cancers. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that Z-ajoene specifically inhibits the growth of the GBM CSC population. CSC sphere-forming inhibition was achieved at a concentration that did not exhibit a cytotoxic effect in regular cell culture conditions. The specificity of this inhibitory effect on the CSC population was confirmed by detecting CSC cell surface marker CD133 expression and biochemical marker ALDH activity. In addition, stem cell-related mRNA profiling and real-time PCR revealed the differential expression of CSC-specific genes, including Notch, Wnt, and Hedgehog, upon treatment with Z-ajoene. A proteomic approach, i.e., reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) and Western blot analysis, showed decreased SMAD4, p-AKT, 14.3.3 and FOXO3A expression. The protein interaction map (
Nam-Ho Kim, Seunghyuk Kim, Jae Seung Hong, Sung Ho Jeon, and Sung-Oh HuhMol. Cells 2014; 37(7): 554-561 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0159
Abstract : Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid growth factor that exerts diverse biological effects through its cognate receptors (LPA1-LPA6). LPA1, which is predominantly expressed in the brain, plays a pivotal role in brain development. However, the role of LPA1 in neuronal migration has not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we delivered LPA1 to mouse cerebral cortex using
Hyun Nam, Ji-Hye Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Byoung-Moo Seo, Joo-Cheol Park, Jung-Wook Kim, and Gene LeeMol. Cells 2014; 37(7): 562-567 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0161
Abstract : Human Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath/epithelial rests of Malassez (HERS/ERM) cells are epithelial remnants of teeth residing in the periodontium. Although the functional roles of HERS/ERM cells have yet to be elucidated, they are a unique epithelial cell population in adult teeth and are reported to have stem cell characteristics. Therefore, HERS/ERM cells might play a role as an epithelial component for the repair or regeneration of dental hard tissues; however, they are very rare population in periodontium and the primary isolation of them is considered to be difficult. To overcome these problems, we immortalized primary HERS/ERM cells isolated from human periodontium using SV40 large T antigen (SV40 LT) and performed a characterization of the immortalized cell line. Primary HERS/ERM cells could not be maintained for more than 6 passages; however, immortalized HERS/ERM cells were maintained for more than 20 passages. There were no differences in the morphological and immunophenotypic characteristics of HERS/ERM cells and immortalized HERS/ERM cells. The expression of epithelial stem cell and embryonic stem cell markers was maintained in immortalized HERS/ERM cells. Moreover, immortalized HERS/ERM cells could acquire mesenchymal phenotypes through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition