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  • MinireviewJune 30, 2022

    0 712 156
    Abstract

    Abstract : Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a multifactorial, heterogeneous disease characterized by persistent inflammation of the sinonasal mucosa and tissue remodeling, which can include basal/progenitor cell hyperplasia, goblet cell hyperplasia, squamous cell metaplasia, loss or dysfunction of ciliated cells, and increased matrix deposition. Repeated injuries can stimulate airway epithelial cells to produce inflammatory mediators that activate epithelial cells, immune cells, or the epithelial–mesenchymal trophic unit. This persistent inflammation can consequently induce aberrant tissue remodeling. However, the molecular mechanisms driving disease within the different molecular CRS subtypes remain inadequately characterized. Numerous secreted and cell surface proteins relevant to airway inflammation and remodeling are initially synthesized as inactive precursor proteins, including growth/differentiation factors and their associated receptors, enzymes, adhesion molecules, neuropeptides, and peptide hormones. Therefore, these precursor proteins require post-translational cleavage by proprotein convertases (PCs) to become fully functional. In this review, we summarize the roles of PCs in CRS-associated tissue remodeling and discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting PCs for CRS treatment.

  • Journal ClubJune 30, 2022

    0 439 87

    Shall We Begin the Voyage of Adipose Tissue Exploration?

    A comprehensive atlas of adipose tissue at the single-cell level

    Yong Geun Jeon *

    Mol. Cells 2022; 45(6): 362-364 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.0071
  • Research ArticleJune 30, 2022

    0 746 175
    Abstract

    Abstract : Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may be important regulators in the progression of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) activity of lncRNAs plays crucial roles in osteogenesis. We identified the mechanism of the differentially expressed lncRNA MALAT1 in AS using bioinformatic analysis and its ceRNA mechanism. The interaction of MALAT1, microRNA-558, and GSDMD was identified using integrated bioinformatics analysis and validated. Loss- and gain-of-function assays evaluated their effects on the viability, apoptosis, pyroptosis and inflammation of chondrocytes in AS. We found elevated MALAT1 and GSDMD but reduced miR-558 in AS cartilage tissues and chondrocytes. MALAT1 contributed to the suppression of cell viability and facilitated apoptosis and pyroptosis in AS chondrocytes. GSDMD was a potential target gene of miR-558. Depletion of MALAT1 expression elevated miR-558 by inhibiting GSDMD to enhance cell viability and inhibit inflammation, apoptosis and pyroptosis of chondrocytes in AS. In summary, our key findings demonstrated that knockdown of MALAT1 served as a potential suppressor of AS by upregulating miR-558 via the downregulation of GSDMD expression.

  • Research ArticleJune 30, 2022

    0 598 144
    Abstract

    Abstract : Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an essential role in the communication between cells and the tumor micro­environment. However, the effect of tumor-derived EVs on the growth and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remains to be explored. This study aimed to elucidate the role of miR-153-3p-EVs in the invasion and migration capabilities of LUAD cells and explore its mechanism through in vivo and in vitro experiments. We found that miR-153-3p was specifically and highly expressed in LUAD and its secreted EVs. Furthermore, the expression of BANCR was negatively regulated by miR-153-3p and identified as a target gene of miR-153-3p using luciferase reporter assays. Through further investigation, we found that the downregulation of BANCR activates the PI3K/AKT pathway and accelerates the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which ultimately leads to the aggravation of LUAD. The orthotopic xenograft mouse model was established to illustrate the effect of miR-153-3p-EVs on LUAD. Animal studies showed that miR-153-3p-EVs accelerated tumor growth in mice. Besides, we found that miR-153-3p-EVs could damage the respiratory ability of mice and produce a mass of inflammatory cells around the lung tissue of mice. Nevertheless, antagomir-153-3p treatment could inhibit the deterioration of respiratory function and inhibit the growth of lung tumors in mice. In conclusion, our study reveals the potential molecular mechanism of miR-153-3p-EVs in the development of LUAD and provides a potential strategy for the treatment of LUAD.

  • Research ArticleJune 30, 2022

    0 451 117

    LncRNA-IMAT1 Promotes Invasion of Meningiomas by Suppressing KLF4/hsa-miR22-3p/Snai1 Pathway

    Yaodong Ding , Yu Ge , Daijun Wang , Qin Liu , Shuchen Sun , Lingyang Hua , Jiaojiao Deng , Shihai Luan , Haixia Cheng , Qing Xie , Ye Gong , and Tao Zhang

    Mol. Cells 2022; 45(6): 388-402 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.2232
    Abstract

    Abstract : Malignant meningiomas often show invasive growth that makes complete tumor resection challenging, and they are more prone to recur after radical resection. Invasive meningioma associated transcript 1 (IMAT1) is a long noncoding RNA located on Homo sapiens chromosome 17 that was identified by our team based on absolute expression differences in invasive and non-invasive meningiomas. Our studies indicated that IMAT1 was highly expressed in invasive meningiomas compared with non-invasive meningiomas. In vitro studies showed that IMAT1 promoted meningioma cell invasion through the inactivation of the Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4)/hsa-miR22-3p/Snai1 pathway by acting as a sponge for hsa-miR22-3p, and IMAT1 knockdown effectively restored the tumor suppressive properties of KLF4 by preserving its tumor suppressor pathway. In vivo experiments confirmed that IMAT1 silencing could significantly inhibit the growth of subcutaneous tumors and prolong the survival period of tumor-bearing mice. Our findings demonstrated that the high expression of IMAT1 is the inherent reason for the loss of the tumor suppressive properties of KLF4 during meningioma progression. Therefore, we believe that IMAT1 may be a potential biological marker and treatment target for meningiomas.

  • Research ArticleJune 30, 2022

    0 579 168

    Protective Role of miR-34c in Hypoxia by Activating Autophagy through BCL2 Repression

    Soyoung Kim , Jaeseok Han , Young-Ho Ahn , Chang Hoon Ha , Jung Jin Hwang , Sang-Eun Lee , Jae-Joong Kim , and Nayoung Kim

    Mol. Cells 2022; 45(6): 403-412 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.2010
    Abstract

    Abstract : Hypoxia leads to significant cellular stress that has diverse pathological consequences such as cardiovascular diseases and cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of regulators of the adaptive pathway in hypoxia. We identified a hypoxia-induced miRNA, miR-34c, that was significantly upregulated in hypoxic human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in murine blood vessels on day 3 of hindlimb ischemia (HLI). miR-34c directly inhibited BCL2 expression, acting as a toggle switch between apoptosis and autophagy in vitro and in vivo. BCL2 repression by miR-34c activated autophagy, which was evaluated by the expression of LC3-II. Overexpression of miR-34c inhibited apoptosis in HUVEC as well as in a murine model of HLI, and increased cell viability in HUVEC. Importantly, the number of viable cells in the blood vessels following HLI was increased by miR-34c overexpression. Collectively, our findings show that miR-34c plays a protective role in hypoxia, suggesting a novel therapeutic target for hypoxic and ischemic diseases in the blood vessels.

  • Research ArticleJune 30, 2022

    0 497 163

    SMAD4 Controls Cancer Cell Metabolism by Regulating Methylmalonic Aciduria Cobalamin Deficiency (cbl) B Type

    Kyoung Song , Hun Seok Lee , Lina Jia , Chaithanya Chelakkot , Nirmal Rajasekaran , and Young Kee Shin

    Mol. Cells 2022; 45(6): 413-424 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.0067
    Abstract

    Abstract : Suppressor of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (SMAD) 4 is a pluripotent signaling mediator that regulates myriad cellular functions, including cell growth, cell division, angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell invasion, and metastasis, through transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-dependent and -independent pathways. SMAD4 is a critical modulator in signal transduction and functions primarily as a transcription factor or cofactor. Apart from being a DNA-binding factor, the additional SMAD4 mechanisms in tumor suppression remain elusive. We previously identified methyl malonyl aciduria cobalamin deficiency B type (MMAB) as a critical SMAD4 binding protein using a proto array analysis. This study confirmed the interaction between SMAD4 and MMAB using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay, proximity ligation assay (PLA), and conventional immunoprecipitation. We found that transient SMAD4 overexpression down-regulates MMAB expression via a proteasome-dependent pathway. SMAD4-MMAB interaction was independent of TGF-β signaling. Finally, we determined the effect of MMAB downregulation on cancer cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of MMAB affected cancer cell metabolism in HeLa cells by decreasing ATP production and glucose consumption as well as inducing apoptosis. These findings suggest that SMAD4 controls cancer cell metabolism by regulating MMAB.

  • Research ArticleJune 30, 2022

    0 550 170

    Modification of ERα by UFM1 Increases Its Stability and Transactivity for Breast Cancer Development

    Hee Min Yoo , Jong Ho Park , Jae Yeon Kim , and Chin Ha Chung

    Mol. Cells 2022; 45(6): 425-434 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.0029
    Abstract

    Abstract : The post-translational modification (e.g., phosphorylation) of estrogen receptor α (ERα) plays a role in controlling the expression and subcellular localization of ERα as well as its sensitivity to hormone response. Here, we show that ERα is also modified by UFM1 and this modification (ufmylation) plays a crucial role in promoting the stability and transactivity of ERα, which in turn promotes breast cancer development. The elevation of ufmylation via the knockdown of UFSP2 (the UFM1-deconjugating enzyme in humans) dramatically increases ERα stability by inhibiting ubiquitination. In contrast, ERα stability is decreased by the prevention of ufmylation via the silencing of UBA5 (the UFM1-activating E1 enzyme). Lys171 and Lys180 of ERα were identified as the major UFM1 acceptor sites, and the replacement of both Lys residues by Arg (2KR mutation) markedly reduced ERα stability. Moreover, the 2KR mutation abrogated the 17β-estradiol-induced transactivity of ERα and the expression of its downstream target genes, including pS2, cyclin D1, and c-Myc; this indicates that ERα ufmylation is required for its transactivation function. In addition, the 2KR mutation prevented anchorage-independent colony formation by MCF7 cells. Most notably, the expression of UFM1 and its conjugating machinery (i.e., UBA5, UFC1, UFL1, and UFBP1) were dramatically upregulated in ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines and tissues. Collectively, these findings implicate a critical role attributed to ERα ufmylation in breast cancer development by ameliorating its stability and transactivity.

Mol. Cells
Sep 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.9
COVER PICTURE
The Target of Rapamycin Complex (TORC) is a central regulatory hub in eukaryotes, which is well conserved in diverse plant species, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Inhibition of TORC genes (SlTOR, SlLST8, and SlRAPTOR) by VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing) results in early fruit ripening in tomato. The red/ orange tomatoes are early-ripened TORC-silenced fruits, while the green tomato is a control fruit. Top, left, control fruit (TRV2-myc); top, right, TRV2-SlLST8; bottom, left, TRV2-SlTOR; bottom, right, TRV2-SlRAPTOR(Choi et al., pp. 660-672).

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