Abstract : Histone acetylation and deacetylation play central roles in the regulation of chromatin structure and transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II). Although Hda1 histone deacetylase complex (Hda1C) is known to selectively deacetylate histone H3 and H2B to repress transcription, previous studies have suggested its potential roles in histone H4 deacetylation. Recently, we have shown that Hda1C has two distinct functions in histone deacetylation and transcription. Histone H4-specific deacetylation at highly transcribed genes negatively regulates RNA Pol II elongation and H3 deacetylation at inactive genes fine-tunes the kinetics of gene induction upon environmental changes. Here, we review the recent understandings of transcriptional regulation via histone deacetylation by Hda1C. In addition, we discuss the potential mechanisms for histone substrate switching by Hda1C, depending on transcriptional frequency and activity.
Sin-Gu Jeong , Takbum Ohn , Chul Ho Jang , Karthikeyan Vijayakumar , and Gwang-Won ChoMol. Cells 2020; 43(10): 848-855 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2020.0135
Abstract : Cells assemble stress granules (SGs) to protect their RNAs from exposure to harmful chemical reactions induced by environmental stress. These SGs release RNAs, which resume translation once the stress is relieved. During stem cell differentiation, gene expression is altered to allow cells to adopt various functional and morphological features necessary to differentiate. This process induces stress within a cell, and cells that cannot overcome this stress die. Here, we investigated the role of SGs in the progression of stem cell differentiation. SGs aggregated during the neuronal differentiation of human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, and not in cell lines that could not undergo differentiation. SGs were observed between one and three hours post-induction; RNA translation was restrained at the same time. Immediately after disassembly of SGs, the expression of the neuronal marker neurofilament-M (NFM) gradually increased. Assembled SGs that persisted in cells were exposed to salubrinal, which inhibited the dephosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit 1 (eIF2α), and in eIF2α/S51D mutant cells. When eIF2α/S51A mutant cells differentiated, SGs were not assembled. In all experiments, the disruption of SGs was accompanied by delayed NF-M expression and the number of neuronally differentiated cells was decreased. Decreased differentiation was accompanied by decreased cell viability, indicating the necessity of SGs for preventing cell death during neuronal differentiation. Collectively, these results demonstrate the essential role of SGs during the neuronal differentiation of stem cells.
Feng-Jie Lin , Xian-Dong Lin , Lu-Ying Xu , and Shi-Quan ZhuMol. Cells 2020; 43(10): 856-869 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2020.0133
Abstract : To elucidate the mechanism of action of HOXA11-AS in modulating the cisplatin resistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. HOXA11-AS and miR-454-3p expression in NPC tissue and cisplatin-resistant NPC cells were measured via quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. NPC parental cells (C666-1 and HNE1) and cisplatin-resistant cells (C666-1/DDP and HNE1/DDP) were transfected and divided into different groups, after which the MTT method was used to determine the inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of cells treated with different concentrations of cisplatin. Additionally, a clone formation assay, flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to detect DDP-induced changes. Thereafter, xenograft mouse models were constructed to verify the in vitro results. Obviously elevated HOXA11-AS and reduced miR-454-3p were found in NPC tissue and cisplatin-resistant NPC cells. Compared to the control cells, cells in the si-HOXA11-AS group showed sharp decreases in cell viability and IC50, and these results were reversed in the miR-454-3p inhibitor group. Furthermore, HOXA11-AS targeted miR-454-3p, which further targeted c-Met. In comparison with cells in the control group, HNE1/DDP and C666-1/DDP cells in the si-HOXA11-AS group demonstrated fewer colonies, with an increase in the apoptotic rate, while the expression levels of c-Met, p-Akt/Akt and p-mTOR/mTOR decreased. Moreover, the si-HOXA11-AS-induced enhancement in sensitivity to cisplatin was abolished by miR-454-3p inhibitor transfection. The in vivo experiment showed that DDP in combination with si-HOXA11-AS treatment could inhibit the growth of xenograft tumors. Silencing HOXA11-AS can inhibit the c-Met/AKT/mTOR pathway by specifically upregulating miR-454-3p, thus promoting cell apoptosis and enhancing the sensitivity of cisplatin-resistant NPC cells to cisplatin.
In Jun Cha , Davin Lee , Sung Soon Park , Chang Geon Chung , Seung Yeon Kim , Min Gu Jo , Seung Yeol Kim , Byung-Hoon Lee , Young-Sam Lee , and Sung Bae LeeMol. Cells 2020; 43(10): 870-879 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2020.0158
Abstract : Dendrites require precise and timely delivery of protein substrates to distal areas to ensure the correct morphology and function of neurons. Many of these protein substrates are supplied in the form of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex consisting of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and mRNAs, which are subsequently translated in distal dendritic areas. It remains elusive, however, whether key RBPs supply mRNA according to local demands individually or in a coordinated manner. In this study, we investigated how Drosophila sensory neurons respond to the dysregulation of a disease-associated RBP, Ataxin-2 (ATX2), which leads to dendritic defects. We found that ATX2 plays a crucial role in spacing dendritic branches for the optimal dendritic receptive fields in Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization (C4da) neurons, where both expression level and subcellular location of ATX2 contribute significantly to this effect. We showed that translational upregulation through the expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) further enhanced the ATX2-induced dendritic phenotypes. Additionally, we found that the expression level of another disease-associated RBP, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), decreased in both cell bodies and dendrites when neurons were faced with aberrant upregulation of ATX2. Finally, we revealed that the PAM2 motif of ATX2, which mediates its interaction with poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), is potentially necessary for the decrease of FMRP in certain neuronal stress conditions. Collectively, our data suggest that dysregulation of RBPs triggers a compensatory regulation of other functionally-overlapping RBPs to minimize RBP dysregulation-associated aberrations that hinder neuronal homeostasis in dendrites.
Ki Wha Chung , Ju Seong Kim , and Kyung Suk LeeMol. Cells 2020; 43(10): 880-888 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2020.0178
Abstract : Inherited peripheral neuropathy is a heterogeneous group of peripheral neurodegenerative disorders including Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease. Many peripheral neuropathies often accompany impaired axonal construction and function. To study the molecular and cellular basis of axon-defective peripheral neuropathy, we explore the possibility of using Caenorhabditis elegans, a powerful nematode model equipped with a variety of genetics and imaging tools. In search of potential candidates of C. elegans peripheral neuropathy models, we monitored the movement and the body posture patterns of 26 C. elegans strains with disruption of genes associated with various peripheral neuropathies and compiled a database of their phenotypes. Our assay showed that movement features of the worms with mutations in HSPB1, MFN2, DYNC1H1, and KIF1B human homologues are significantly different from the control strain, suggesting they are viable candidates for C. elegans peripheral neuropathy models.
You-Soub Lee , Ja-Yeol Lee , Soo-Hyun Song , Da-Mi Kim , Jung-Won Lee , Xin-Zi Chi , Yoshiaki Ito , and Suk-Chul BaeMol. Cells 2020; 43(10): 889-897 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2020.0182
Abstract : K-RAS is frequently mutated in human lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs), and the p53 pathway plays a central role in cellular defense against oncogenic K-RAS mutation. However, in mouse lung cancer models, oncogenic K-RAS mutation alone can induce ADCs without p53 mutation, and loss of p53 does not have a significant impact on early K-RAS–induced lung tumorigenesis. These results raise the question of how K-RAS–activated cells evade oncogene surveillance mechanisms and develop into lung ADCs. RUNX3 plays a key role at the restriction (R)-point, which governs multiple tumor suppressor pathways including the p14ARF–p53 pathway. In this study, we found that K-RAS activation in a very limited number of cells, alone or in combination with p53 inactivation, failed to induce any pathologic lesions for up to 1 year. By contrast, when Runx3 was inactivated and K-RAS was activated by the same targeting method, lung ADCs and other tumors were rapidly induced. In a urethane-induced mouse lung tumor model that recapitulates the features of K-RAS–driven human lung tumors, Runx3 was inactivated in both adenomas (ADs) and ADCs, whereas K-RAS was activated only in ADCs. Together, these results demonstrate that the R-point–associated oncogene surveillance mechanism is abrogated by Runx3 inactivation in AD cells and these cells cannot defend against K-RAS activation, resulting in the transition from AD to ADC. Therefore, K-RAS–activated lung epithelial cells do not evade oncogene surveillance mechanisms; instead, they are selected if they occur in AD cells in which Runx3 has been inactivated.
Bo Wang, Yun Su, Qun Yang, Decheng Lv, Weiguo Zhang, Kai Tang, Hong Wang, Rui Zhang, and Yang LiuMol. Cells 2020; 43(10): 898-898 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2020.3327