Abstract : As sessile organisms, plants have developed sophisticated system to defend themselves against microbial attack. Since plants do not have specialized immune cells, all plant cells appear to have the innate ability to recognize pathogens and turn on an appropriate defense response. The plant innate immune system has two major branches: PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular patterns)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). The ability to discriminate between self and non-self is a fundamental feature of living organisms, and it is a prerequisite for the activation of plant defenses specific to microbial infection. Arabidopsis cells express receptors that detect extracellular molecules or structures of the microbes, which are called collectively PAMPs and activate PTI. However, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeats (NB-LRR) proteins mediated ETI is induced by direct or indirect recognition of effector molecules encoded by
Kyukwang Kim, Junghyun Eom, and Inkyung JungMol. Cells 2019; 42(7): 512-522 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0137
Abstract : Chromosomes located in the nucleus form discrete units of genetic material composed of DNA and protein complexes. The genetic information is encoded in linear DNA sequences, but its interpretation requires an understanding of three-dimensional (3D) structure of the chromosome, in which distant DNA sequences can be juxtaposed by highly condensed chromatin packing in the space of nucleus to precisely control gene expression. Recent technological innovations in exploring higher-order chromatin structure have uncovered organizational principles of the 3D genome and its various biological implications. Very recently, it has been reported that large-scale genomic variations may disrupt higher-order chromatin organization and as a consequence, greatly contribute to disease-specific gene regulation for a range of human diseases. Here, we review recent developments in studying the effect of structural variation in gene regulation, and the detection and the interpretation of structural variations in the context of 3D chromatin structure.
Dawon Hong, Taeyoung Park, and Sunjoo JeongMol. Cells 2019; 42(7): 523-529 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0116
Abstract : mRNA quality is controlled by multiple RNA surveillance machineries to reduce errors during gene expression processes in eukaryotic cells. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a well-characterized mechanism that degrades error-containing transcripts during translation. The ATP-dependent RNA helicase up-frameshift 1 (UPF1) is a key player in NMD that is mostly prevalent in the cytoplasm. However, recent studies on UPF1-RNA interaction suggest more comprehensive roles of UPF1 on diverse forms of target transcripts. Here we used subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence to understand such complex functions of UPF1. We demonstrated that UPF1 can be localized to the nucleus and predominantly associated with the chromatin. Moreover, we showed that UPF1 associates more strongly with the chromatin when the transcription elongation and translation inhibitors were used. These findings suggest a novel role of UPF1 in transcription elongation-coupled RNA machinery in the chromatin, as well as in translation-coupled NMD in the cytoplasm. Thus, we propose that cytoplasmic UPF1-centric RNA surveillance mechanism could be extended further up to the chromatin-associated UPF1 and co-transcriptional RNA surveillance. Our findings could provide the mechanistic insights on extensive regulatory roles of UPF1 for many cellular RNAs.
Hak Jun Ahn, Soon Young Hwang, Ngoc Hoan Nguyen, Ik Jae Lee, Eun Jeong Lee, Jinsil Seong, and Jong-Soo LeeMol. Cells 2019; 42(7): 530-545 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.2280
Abstract : Tumor cells can vary epigenetically during ionizing irradiation (IR) treatment. These epigenetic variegations can influence IR response and shape tumor aggressiveness. However, epigenetic disturbance of histones after IR, implicating in IR responsiveness, has been elusive. Here, we investigate whether altered histone modification after IR can influence radiation responsiveness. The oncogenic CXCL12 mRNA and protein were more highly expressed in residual cancer cells from a hepatoma heterotopic murine tumor microenvironment and coculture of human hepatoma Huh7 and normal IMR90 cells after radiation. H3K4 methylation was also enriched and H3K9 methylation was decreased at its promoter region. Accordingly, invasiveness and the subpopulation of aggressive CD133+/CD24− cells increased after IR. Histone demethylase inhibitor IOX1 attenuated CXCL12 expression and the malignant subpopulation, suggesting that responses to IR can be partially mediated via histone modifications. Taken together, radiation-induced histone alterations at the CXCL12 promoter in hepatoma cells are linked to CXCL12 upregulation and increased aggressiveness in the tumor microenvironment.
Jaehong Park, Jihye Lee, and Dong-Hyun LeeMol. Cells 2019; 42(7): 546-556 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0014
Abstract : Protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) is a crucial protein complex that plays an important role in DNA damage response (DDR), including DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Despite the significance of PP4, the mechanism by which PP4 is regulated remains to be elucidated. Here, we identified a novel PP4 inhibitor, protein phosphatase 4 inhibitory protein (PP4IP) and elucidated its cellular functions. PP4IP-knockout cells were generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and the phosphorylation status of PP4 substrates (H2AX, KAP1, and RPA2) was analyzed. Then we investigated that how PP4IP affects the cellular functions of PP4 by immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair assays. PP4IP interacts with PP4 complex, which is affected by DNA damage and cell cycle progression and decreases the dephosphorylational activity of PP4. Both overexpression and depletion of PP4IP impairs DSB repairs and sensitizes cells to genotoxic stress, suggesting timely inhibition of PP4 to be indispensable for cells in responding to DNA damage. Our results identify a novel inhibitor of PP4 that inhibits PP4-mediated cellular functions and establish the physiological importance of this regulation. In addition, PP4IP might be developed as potential therapeutic reagents for targeting tumors particularly with high level of PP4C expression.
Guohua Ji, Hongbin Liang, Falin Wang, Nan Wang, Songbin Fu, and Xiaobo CuiMol. Cells 2019; 42(7): 557-567 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0015
Abstract : TSPAN12, a member of the tetraspanin family, has been highly connected with the pathogenesis of cancer. Its biological function, however, especially in ovarian cancer (OC), has not been well elucidated. In this study, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset analysis revealed that upregulation of