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  • MinireviewApril 30, 2019

    0 63 1006
    Abstract

    Abstract : Eukaryotic cells use conserved quality control mechanisms to repair or degrade defective proteins, which are synthesized at a high rate during proteotoxic stress. Quality control mechanisms include molecular chaperones, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and autophagic machinery. Recent research reveals that during autophagy, membrane-bound organelles are selectively sequestered and degraded. Selective autophagy is also critical for the clearance of excess or damaged protein complexes (e.g., proteasomes and ribosomes) and membrane-less compartments (e.g., protein aggregates and ribonucleoprotein granules). As sessile organisms, plants rely on quality control mechanisms for their adaptation to fluctuating environments. In this mini-review, we highlight recent work elucidating the roles of selective autophagy in the quality control of proteins and RNA in plant cells. Emphasis will be placed on selective degradation of membrane-less compartments and protein complexes in the cytoplasm. We also propose possible mechanisms by which defective proteins are selectively recognized by autophagic machinery.

  • MinireviewApril 30, 2019

    0 69 2040

    Similarities and Distinctions in the Effects of Metformin and Carbon Monoxide in Immunometabolism

    Jeongmin Park, Yeonsoo Joe, Stefan W. Ryter, Young-Joon Surh, and Hun Taeg Chung

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(4): 292-300 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0016
    Abstract

    Abstract : Immunometabolism, defined as the interaction of metabolic pathways with the immune system, influences the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Metformin and carbon monoxide (CO) are two pharmacological agents known to ameliorate metabolic disorders. There are notable similarities and differences in the reported effects of metformin and CO on immunometabolism. Metformin, an anti-diabetes drug, has positive effects on metabolism and can exert anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects via adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent and AMPK-independent mechanisms. CO, an endogenous product of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), can exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects at low concentration. CO can confer cytoprotection in metabolic disorders and cancer via selective activation of the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase (PERK) pathway. Both metformin and CO can induce mitochondrial stress to produce a mild elevation of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) by distinct mechanisms. Metformin inhibits complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), while CO inhibits ETC complex IV. Both metformin and CO can differentially induce several protein factors, including fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and sestrin2 (SESN2), which maintain metabolic homeostasis; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidant response; and REDD1, which exhibits an anticancer effect. However, metformin and CO regulate these effects via different pathways. Metformin stimulates p53- and AMPK-dependent pathways whereas CO can selectively trigger the PERK-dependent signaling pathway. Although further studies are needed to identify the mechanistic differences between metformin and CO, pharmacological application of these agents may represent useful strategies to ameliorate metabolic diseases associated with altered immunometabolism.

  • Research ArticleApril 30, 2019

    0 31 411

    Drosophila CrebB is a Substrate of the Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay Pathway that Sustains Circadian Behaviors

    Hwajung Ri, Jongbin Lee, Jun Young Sonn, Eunseok Yoo, Chunghun Lim, and Joonho Choe

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(4): 301-312 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.2451
    Abstract

    Abstract : Post-transcriptional regulation underlies the circadian control of gene expression and animal behaviors. However, the role of mRNA surveillance via the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway in circadian rhythms remains elusive. Here, we report that Drosophila NMD pathway acts in a subset of circadian pacemaker neurons to maintain robust 24 h rhythms of free-running locomotor activity. RNA interference-mediated depletion of key NMD factors in timeless-expressing clock cells decreased the amplitude of circadian locomotor behaviors. Transgenic manipulation of the NMD pathway in clock neurons expressing a neuropeptide PIGMENT-DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) was sufficient to dampen or lengthen free-running locomotor rhythms. Confocal imaging of a transgenic NMD reporter revealed that arrhythmic Clock mutants exhibited stronger NMD activity in PDF-expressing neurons than wild-type. We further found that hypomorphic mutations in Suppressor with morphogenetic effect on genitalia 5 (Smg5 ) or Smg6 impaired circadian behaviors. These NMD mutants normally developed PDF-expressing clock neurons and displayed daily oscillations in the transcript levels of core clock genes. By contrast, the loss of Smg5 or Smg6 function affected the relative transcript levels of cAMP response element-binding protein B (CrebB ) in an isoform-specific manner. Moreover, the overexpression of a transcriptional repressor form of CrebB rescued free-running locomotor rhythms in Smg5-depleted flies. These data demonstrate that CrebB is a rate-limiting substrate of the genetic NMD pathway important for the behavioral output of circadian clocks in Drosophila.

  • Research ArticleApril 30, 2019

    0 25 346
    Abstract

    Abstract : Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) develop through the continuous interaction with intestinal antigens such as commensal microbiome and diet. However, their respective roles and mutual interactions in the development of IELs are largely unknown. Here, we showed that dietary antigens regulate the development of the majority of CD8αβ IELs in the small intestine and the absence of commensal microbiota particularly during the weaning period, delay the development of IELs. When we tested specific dietary components, such as wheat or combined corn, soybean and yeast, they were dependent on commensal bacteria for the timely development of diet-induced CD8αβ IELs. In addition, supplementation of intestinal antigens later in life was inefficient for the full induction of CD8αβ IELs. Overall, our findings suggest that early exposure to commensal bacteria is important for the proper development of dietary antigen-dependent immune repertoire in the gut.

  • Research ArticleApril 30, 2019

    0 43 617

    Up-regulation of Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 Is Associated with Brain Metastasis in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Lishi Yang, Junyang Li, Shaozhi Fu, Peirong Ren, Juan Tang, Na Wang, Xiangxiang Shi, Jingbo Wu, and Sheng Lin

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(4): 321-332 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.2441
    Abstract

    Abstract : The brain is the most common metastatic site of lung adenocarcinoma; however, the mechanism of this selective metastasis remains unclear. We aimed to verify the hypothesis that exposure of tumor cells to the brain microenvironment leads to changes in their gene expression, which promotes their oriented transfer to the brain. A549 and H1299 lung adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to human astrocyte-conditioned medium to simulate the brain microenvironment. Microarray analysis was used to identify differentially expressed genes, which were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. Knockdown experiments using microRNAs and the overexpression of genes by cell transfection were performed in addition to migration and invasion assays. In vitro findings were confirmed in clinical specimens using immunohistochemistry. We found and confirmed a significant increase in insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) levels. Our results also showed that the up-regulation of IGFBP3 promoted A549 cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, and invasion, while the knockdown of IGFBP3 resulted in decreased cell motility. We also found that Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (Smad4)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition was likely IGFBP3-dependent in A549 cells. Finally, expression of IGFBP3 was significantly elevated in pulmonary cancer tissues and intracranial metastatic tissues. Our data indicate that up-regulation of IGFBP3 might mediate brain metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma, which makes it a potential therapeutic target.

  • Research ArticleApril 30, 2019

    0 38 378
    Abstract

    Abstract : Various genetic and environmental factors are known to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We identified COPD-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using 189 samples accompanying either adenocarcinoma (AC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SC), comprising 91 normal and 98 COPD samples. DEGs were obtained from the intersection of two DEG sets separately identified for AC and SC to exclude the influence of different cancer backgrounds co-occurring with COPD. We also measured patient samples named group ‘I’, which were unable to be determined as normal or COPD based on alterations in gene expression. The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed significant alterations in the expression of genes categorized with the ‘cell adhesion’, ‘inflammatory response’, and ‘mitochondrial functions’, i.e., well-known functions related to COPD, in samples from patients with COPD. Multi-omics data were subsequently integrated to decipher the upstream regulatory changes linked to the gene expression alterations in COPD. COPD-associated expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) were located at the upstream regulatory regions of 96 DEGs. Additionally, 45 previously identified COPD-related miRNAs were predicted to target 66 of the DEGs. The eQTLs and miRNAs might affect the expression of ‘respiratory electron transport chain’ genes and ‘cell proliferation’ genes, respectively, while both eQTLs and miRNAs might affect the expression of ‘apoptosis’ genes. We think that our present study will contribute to our understanding of the molecular etiology of COPD accompanying lung cancer.

  • Research ArticleApril 30, 2019

    0 49 453

    Upregulation of FZD5 in Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps by Epigenetic Modification

    Jong-Yeup Kim, Min-Ji Cha, Young-Seon Park, Jaeku Kang, Jong-Joong Choi, Seung Min In, and Dong-Kyu Kim

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(4): 345-355 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.2418
    Abstract

    Abstract : Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is one of the most challenging problems in clinical rhinology. FZD5 is a receptor for Wnt5A, and its complex with Wnt5A contributes to activating inflammation and tissue modification. Nasal polyps and eosinophil/non-eosinophil counts are reported to be directly correlated. This study investigated the expression and distribution of FZD5, and the role of eosinophil infiltration and FZD5 in eosinophilic CRSwNP pathogenesis. The prognostic role of eosinophil levels was evaluated in seven patients with CRSwNP. Fifteen patients with CRS were classified based on the percentage of eosinophils in nasal polyp tissue. Methylated genes were detected using methyl-CpG-binding domain sequencing, and qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to detect FZD5 expression in nasal polyp tissue samples. The results showed that mRNA expression of FZD5 was upregulated in nasal polyps. FZD5 expression was significantly higher in nasal polyp samples from patients with eosinophilic CRSwNP than in those from patients with non-eosinophilic CRSwNP, as indicated by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, inflammatory cytokine levels were higher in eosinophilic CRSwNP-derived epithelial cells than in normal tissues. In conclusion, FZD5 expression in nasal mucosal epithelial cells is correlated with inflammatory cells and might play a role in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic CRSwNP.

  • Rapid ReportApril 30, 2019

    0 40 883

    MS2 Labeling of Endogenous Beta-Actin mRNA Does Not Result in Stabilization of Degradation Intermediates

    Songhee H. Kim, Melissa Vieira, Hye-Jin Kim, Mahipal Singh Kesawat, and Hye Yoon Park

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(4): 356-362 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.2398
    Abstract

    Abstract : The binding of MS2 bacteriophage coat protein (MCP) to MS2 binding site (MBS) RNA stem-loop sequences has been widely used to label mRNA for live-cell imaging at single-molecule resolution. However, concerns have been raised recently from studies with budding yeast showing aberrant mRNA metabolism following the MS2-GFP labeling. To investigate the degradation pattern of MS2-GFP-labeled mRNA in mammalian cells and tissues, we used Northern blot analysis of β-actin mRNA extracted from the Actb-MBS knock-in and MBS×MCP hybrid mouse models. In the immortalized mouse embryonic cell lines and various organ tissues derived from the mouse models, we found no noticeable accumulation of decay products of β-actin mRNA compared with the wild-type mice. Our results suggest that accumulation of MBS RNA decay fragments does not always happen depending on the mRNA species and the model organisms used.

  • Fast TrackApril 30, 2019

    0 29 282

    Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of MAPK-Mediated Regulation of Sectorization in Cryphonectria parasitica

    Jeesun Chun, Kum-Kang So, Yo-Han Ko, Jung-Mi Kim, and Dae-Hyuk Kim

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(4): 363-375 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0019
    Abstract

    Abstract : Fungal sectorization is a complex trait that is still not fully understood. The unique phenotypic changes in sporadic sectorization in mutants of CpBck1, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) gene, and CpSlt2, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene, in the cell wall integrity pathway of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica have been previously studied. Although several environmental and physiological factors cause this sectoring phenotype, genetic variants can also impact this complex morphogenesis. Therefore, RNA sequencing analysis was employed to identify candidate genes associated with sectorization traits and understand the genetic mechanism of this phenotype. Transcriptomic analysis of CpBck1 and CpSlt2 mutants and their sectored progeny strains revealed a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to various cellular processes. Approximately 70% of DEGs were common between the wild-type and each of CpBck1 and CpSlt2 mutants, indicating that CpBck1 and CpSlt2 are components of the same MAPK pathway, but each component governs specific sets of genes. Functional description of the DEGs between the parental mutants and their sectored progenies revealed several key pathways, including the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, translation, amino acid metabolism, and carbohydrate metabolism; among these, pathways for secondary metabolism and translation appeared to be the most common pathway. The results of this comparative study provide a better understanding of the genetic regulation of sector formation and suggest that complex several regulatory pathways result in interplays between secondary metabolites and morphogenesis.

  • ErratumApril 30, 2019

    0 17 226

    Erratum to: Role of Dehydrocorybulbine in Neuropathic Pain After Spinal Cord Injury Mediated by P2X4 Receptor

    Zhongwei Wang, Wei Mei, Qingde Wang, Rundong Guo, Peilin Liu, Yuqiang Wang, Zijuan Zhang, and Limin Wang

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(4): 376-376 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.1028
Mol. Cells
Nov 30, 2021 Vol.44 No.11
COVER PICTURE
3D quantitative images of the vesicular structure and the nucleolus using label free optical diffraction tomography (Kim et al., pp. 851-860).

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