Top

Archives

Archives
journal-cover
Previous​ Next
  • MinireviewMarch 31, 2019

    0 119 2403
    Abstract

    Abstract : Cell-to-cell variability in gene expression exists even in a homogeneous population of cells. Dissecting such cellular heterogeneity within a biological system is a prerequisite for understanding how a biological system is developed, homeo-statically regulated, and responds to external perturbations. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) allows the quantitative and unbiased characterization of cellular heterogeneity by providing genome-wide molecular profiles from tens of thousands of individual cells. A major question in analyzing scRNA-seq data is how to account for the observed cell-to-cell variability. In this review, we provide an overview of scRNA-seq protocols, computational approaches for dissecting cellular heterogeneity, and future directions of single-cell transcriptomic analysis.

  • MinireviewMarch 31, 2019

    0 140 3309
    Abstract

    Abstract : Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been used as promising tools for regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug screening. Traditional and common strategies for pluripotent stem cell (PSC) differentiation toward disease-relevant cell types depend on sequential treatment of signaling molecules identified based on knowledge of developmental biology. However, these strategies suffer from low purity, inefficiency, and time-consuming culture conditions. A growing body of recent research has shown efficient cell fate reprogramming by forced expression of single or multiple transcription factors. Here, we review transcription factor-directed differentiation methods of PSCs toward neural, muscle, liver, and pancreatic endocrine cells. Potential applications and limitations are also discussed in order to establish future directions of this technique for therapeutic purposes.

  • ArticleMarch 31, 2019

    0 52 880

    Alleviation of Senescence via ATM Inhibition in Accelerated Aging Models

    Myeong Uk Kuk, Jae Won Kim, Young-Sam Lee, Kyung A Cho, Joon Tae Park, and Sang Chul Park

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(3): 210-217 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0352
    Abstract

    Abstract : The maintenance of mitochondrial function is closely linked to the control of senescence. In our previous study, we uncovered a novel mechanism in which senescence amelioration in normal aging cells is mediated by the recovered mitochondrial function upon Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) inhibition. However, it remains elusive whether this mechanism is also applicable to senescence amelioration in accelerated aging cells. In this study, we examined the role of ATM inhibition on mitochondrial function in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and Werner syndrome (WS) cells. We found that ATM inhibition induced mitochondrial functional recovery accompanied by metabolic reprogramming, which has been known to be a prerequisite for senescence alleviation in normal aging cells. Indeed, the induced mitochondrial metabolic reprogramming was coupled with senescence amelioration in accelerated aging cells. Furthermore, the therapeutic effect via ATM inhibition was observed in HGPS as evidenced by reduced progerin accumulation with concomitant decrease of abnormal nuclear morphology. Taken together, our data indicate that the mitochondrial functional recovery by ATM inhibition might represent a promising strategy to ameliorate the accelerated aging phenotypes and to treat age-related disease.

  • ArticleMarch 31, 2019

    0 107 1280

    Knockdown of lncRNA PVT1 Inhibits Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis and Extracellular Matrix Disruption in a Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Model

    Zhidong Zhang, Gangqiang Zou, Xiaosan Chen, Wei Lu, Jianyang Liu, Shuiting Zhai, and Gang Qiao

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(3): 218-227 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0162
    Abstract

    Abstract : This study was designed to determine the effects of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) disruption in a murine abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) model. After injection of PVT1-silencing lentiviruses, AAA was induced in Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) male mice by angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion for four weeks. After Ang II infusion, mouse serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were analysed, and aortic tissues were isolated for histological, RNA, and protein analysis. Our results also showed that PVT1 expression was significantly upregulated in abdominal aortic tissues from AAA patients compared with that in controls. Additionally, Ang II treatment significantly increased PVT1 expression, both in cultured mouse VSMCs and in AAA murine abdominal aortic tissues. Of note, the effects of Ang II in facilitating cell apoptosis, increasing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, reducing tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1, and promoting switching from the contractile to synthetic phenotype in cultured VSMCs were enhanced by overexpression of PVT1 but attenuated by knockdown of PVT1. Furthermore, knockdown of PVT1 reversed Ang II-induced AAA-associated alterations in mice, as evidenced by attenuation of aortic diameter dilation, marked adventitial thickening, loss of elastin in the aorta, enhanced aortic cell apoptosis, elevated MMP-2 and MMP-9, reduced TIMP-1, and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that knockdown of lncRNA PVT1 suppresses VSMC apoptosis, ECM disruption, and serum pro-inflammatory cytokines in a murine Ang II-induced AAA model.

  • ArticleMarch 31, 2019

    0 38 415
    Abstract

    Abstract : CD4 T cells differentiate into RORγt/IL-17A-expressing cells in the small intestine following colonization by segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB). However, it remains unclear whether SFB-specific CD4 T cells can differentiate directly from naïve precursors, and whether their effector differentiation is solely directed towards the Th17 lineage. In this study, we used adoptive T cell transfer experiments and showed that naïve CD4 T cells can migrate to the small intestinal lamina propria (sLP) and differentiate into effector T cells that synthesize IL-17A in response to SFB colonization. Using single cell RT-PCR analysis, we showed that the progenies of SFB responding T cells are not uniform but composed of transcriptionally divergent populations including Th1, Th17 and follicular helper T cells. We further confirmed this finding using in vitro culture of SFB specific intestinal CD4 T cells in the presence of cognate antigens, which also generated heterogeneous population with similar features. Collectively, these findings indicate that a single species of intestinal bacteria can generate a divergent population of antigen-specific effector CD4 T cells, rather than it provides a cytokine milieu for the development of a particular effector T cell subset.

  • ArticleMarch 31, 2019

    0 51 670

    CDRgator: An Integrative Navigator of Cancer Drug Resistance Gene Signatures

    Su-Kyeong Jang, Byung-Ha Yoon, Seung Min Kang, Yeo-Gha Yoon, Seon-Young Kim, and Wankyu Kim

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(3): 237-244 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0413
    Abstract

    Abstract : Understanding the mechanisms of cancer drug resistance is a critical challenge in cancer therapy. For many cancer drugs, various resistance mechanisms have been identified such as target alteration, alternative signaling pathways, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, and epigenetic modulation. Resistance may arise via multiple mechanisms even for a single drug, making it necessary to investigate multiple independent models for comprehensive understanding and therapeutic application. In particular, we hypothesize that different resistance processes result in distinct gene expression changes. Here, we present a web-based database, CDRgator (Cancer Drug Resistance navigator) for comparative analysis of gene expression signatures of cancer drug resistance. Resistance signatures were extracted from two different types of datasets. First, resistance signatures were extracted from transcriptomic profiles of cancer cells or patient samples and their resistance-induced counterparts for >30 cancer drugs. Second, drug resistance group signatures were also extracted from two large-scale drug sensitivity datasets representing ~1,000 cancer cell lines. All the datasets are available for download, and are conveniently accessible based on drug class and cancer type, along with analytic features such as clustering analysis, multidimensional scaling, and pathway analysis. CDRgator allows meta-analysis of independent resistance models for more comprehensive understanding of drug-resistance mechanisms that is difficult to accomplish with individual datasets alone (database URL: http://cdrgator.ewha.ac.kr).

  • ArticleMarch 31, 2019

    0 45 486

    Ependymal Cells Require Anks1a for Their Proper Development

    Sunjung Park, Haeryung Lee, Jiyeon Lee, Eunjeong Park, and Soochul Park

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(3): 245-251 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0432
    Abstract

    Abstract : Ependymal cells constitute the multi-ciliated epithelium, which lines the brain ventricular lumen. Although ependymal cells originate from radial glial cells in the perinatal rodent brain, the exact mechanisms underlying the full differentiation of ependymal cells are poorly understood. In this report, we present evidence that the Anks1a phosphotyrosine binding domain (PTB) adaptor is required for the proper development of ependymal cells in the rodent postnatal brain. Anks1a gene trap targeted LacZ reporter analysis revealed that Anks1a is expressed prominently in the ventricular region of the early postnatal brain and that its expression is restricted to mature ependymal cells during postnatal brain development. In addition, Anks1a-deficient ependymal cells were shown to possess type B cell characteristics, suggesting that ependymal cells require Anks1a in order to be fully differentiated. Finally, Anks1a overexpression in the lateral wall of the neonatal brain resulted in an increase in the number of ependymal cells during postnatal brain development. Altogether, our results suggest that ependymal cells require Anks1a PTB adaptor for their proper development.

  • ArticleMarch 31, 2019

    0 45 747
    Abstract

    Abstract : The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is known to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in many types of cancers. However, the roles of DHA in drug-resistant cancer cells have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of DHA in cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer SNU-601/cis2 cells. DHA was found to induce ROS-dependent apoptosis in these cells. The inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) blocker 2-aminoethyl diphenylboninate (2-APB) reduced DHA-induced ROS production, consequently reducing apoptosis. We also found that G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120), a receptor of long-chain fatty acids, is expressed in SNU-601/cis2 cells, and the knockdown of GPR120 using specific shRNAs alleviated DHA-mediated ROS production and apoptosis. GPR120 knockdown reduced the expression of ER stress response genes, similar to the case for the pre-treatment of the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, or 2-APB. Indeed, the knockdown of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a transcription factor that functions under ER stress conditions, markedly reduced DHA-mediated apoptosis, indicating that CHOP plays an essential role in the anti-cancer activity of DHA. These results suggest that GPR120 mediates DHA-induced apoptosis by regulating IP3R, ROS, and ER stress levels in cisplatin-resistant cancer cells, and that GPR120 is an effective chemotherapeutic target for cisplatin resistance.

  • ArticleMarch 31, 2019

    0 41 519

    Enhanced Expression and Functional Characterization of the Recombinant Putative Lysozyme-PMAP36 Fusion Protein

    Zhili Rao, So Young Kim, Md Rashedunnabi Akanda, Su Jin Lee, In Duk Jung, Byung-Yong Park, Seralathan Kamala-Kannan, Jin Hur, and Jung Hee Park

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(3): 262-269 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.2365
    Abstract

    Abstract : The porcine myeloid antimicrobial peptide (PMAP), one of the cathelicidin family members, contains small cationic peptides with amphipathic properties. We used a putative lysozyme originated from the bacteriophage P22 (P22 lysozyme) as a fusion partner, which was connected to the N-terminus of the PMAP36 peptide, to markedly increase the expression levels of recombinant PMAP36. The PMAP36-P22 lysozyme fusion protein with high solubility was produced in Escherichia coli. The final purified yield was approximately 1.8 mg/L. The purified PMAP36-P22 lysozyme fusion protein exhibited antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus subtilis). Furthermore, we estimated its hemolytic activity against pig erythrocytes as 6% at the high concentration (128 μM) of the PMAP36-P22 lysozyme fusion protein. Compared with the PMAP36 peptide (12%), our fusion protein exhibited half of the hemolytic activity. Overall, our recombinant PMAP36-P22 lysozyme fusion protein sustained the antimicrobial activity with the lower hemolytic activity associated with the synthetic PMAP36 peptide. This study suggests that the PMAP36-P22 lysozyme fusion system could be a crucial addition to the plethora of novel antimicrobials.

  • ArticleMarch 31, 2019

    0 82 1010
    Abstract

    Abstract : This study was aimed to explore if lncRNA MALAT1 would modify chemo-resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells by regulating miR-197-3p and p120 catenin (p120-ctn). Within this investigation, we totally recruited 326 lung cancer patients, and purchased 4 NSCLC cell lines of A549, H1299, SPC-A-1 and H460. Moreover, cisplatin, adriamycin, gefitinib and paclitaxel were arranged as chemotherapies, and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated to evaluate the chemo-resistance of the cells. Furthermore, mice models of NSCLC were also established to assess the impacts of MALAT1, miR-197-3p and p120-ctn on tumor growth. Our results indicated that MALAT1 and miR-197-3p were both over-expressed within NSCLC tissues and cells, when compared with normal tissues and cells (P < 0.05). The A549, H460, SPC-A-1 and SPC-A-1 displayed maximum resistances to cisplatin (IC50 = 15.70 μg/ml), adriamycin (IC50 = 5.58 μg/ml), gefitinib (96.82 μmol/L) and paclitaxel (141.97 nmol/L). Over-expression of MALAT1 and miR-197-3p, or under-expression of p120-ctn were associated with promoted viability and growth of the cancer cells (P < 0.05), and they could significantly strengthen the chemo-resistance of cancer cells (P < 0.05). MALAT1 Wt or p120-ctn Wt co-transfected with miR-197-3p mimic was observed with significantly reduced luciferase activity within NSCLC cells (P < 0.05). Finally, the NSCLC mice models were observed with larger tumor size and weight under circumstances of over-expressed MALAT1 and miR-197-3p, or under-expressed p120-ctn (P < 0.05). In conclusion, MALAT1 could alter chemo-resistance of NSCLC cells by targeting miR-197-3p and regulating p120-ctn expression, which might assist in improvement of chemo-therapies for NSCLC.

Mol. Cells
Nov 30, 2021 Vol.44 No.11
COVER PICTURE
3D quantitative images of the vesicular structure and the nucleolus using label free optical diffraction tomography (Kim et al., pp. 851-860).

Archives

Molecules and Cells

eISSN 0219-1032
qr-code Download