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  • MinireviewDecember 31, 2019

    0 169 2870
    Abstract

    Abstract : Aging is the most important single risk factor for many chronic diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, and neurodegenerative disorders. Targeting aging itself might, therefore, be a better strategy than targeting each chronic disease individually for enhancing human health. Although much should be achieved for completely understanding the biological basis of aging, cellular senescence is now believed to mainly contribute to organismal aging via two independent, yet not mutually exclusive mechanisms: on the one hand, senescence of stem cells leads to exhaustion of stem cells and thus decreases tissue regeneration. On the other hand, senescent cells secrete many proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases, collectively termed as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which causes chronic inflammation and tissue dysfunction. Much effort has been recently made to therapeutically target detrimental effects of cellular senescence including selectively eliminating senescent cells (senolytics) and modulating a proinflammatory senescent secretome (senostatics). Here, we discuss current progress and limitations in understanding molecular mechanisms of senolytics and senostatics and therapeutic strategies for applying them. Furthermore, we propose how these novel interventions for aging treatment could be improved, based on lessons learned from cancer treatment.

  • MinireviewDecember 31, 2019

    0 82 1333
    Abstract

    Abstract : PIWI Argonaute proteins and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are expressed in all animal species and play a critical role in cellular defense by inhibiting the activation of transposable elements in the germline. Recently, new evidence suggests that PIWI proteins and piRNAs also play important roles in various somatic tissues, including neurons. This review summarizes the neuronal functions of the PIWI-piRNA pathway in multiple animal species, including their involvement in axon regeneration, behavior, memory formation, and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of adaptive memory. This review also discusses the consequences of dysregulation of neuronal PIWI-piRNA pathways in certain neurological disorders, including neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. A full understanding of neuronal PIWI-piRNA pathways will ultimately provide novel insights into small RNA biology and could potentially provide precise targets for therapeutic applications.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2019

    0 38 703

    Involvement of RUNX and BRD Family Members in Restriction Point

    Jung-Won Lee, Tae-Geun Park, and Suk-Chul Bae

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(12): 836-839 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0256
    Abstract

    Abstract : A tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue that arises when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. The cellular decision regarding whether to undergo division or death is made at the restriction (R)-point. Consistent with this, an increasingly large body of evidence indicates that deregulation of the R-point decision-making machinery accompanies the formation of most tumors. Although the R-point decision is literally a matter of life and death for the cell, and thus critical for the health of the organism, it remains unclear how a cell chooses its own fate. Recent work demonstrated that the R-point constitutes a novel oncogene surveillance mechanism operated by R-point–associated complexes of which RUNX3 and BRD2 are the core factors (Rpa-RX3 complexes). Here, we show that not only RUNX3 and BRD2, but also other members of the RUNX and BRD families (RUNX1, RUNX2, BRD3, and BRD4), are involved in R-point regulation.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2019

    0 36 696
    Abstract

    Abstract : The spatiotemporal mitotic processes are controlled qualitatively by phosphorylation and qualitatively by ubiquitination. Although the SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein (SCF) complex and the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) mainly mediate ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of mitotic regulators, the E3 ligase for a large portion of mitotic proteins has yet to be identified. Here, we report c-Cbl as an E3 ligase that degrades DDA3, a protein involved in spindle dynamics. Depletion of c-Cbl led to increased DDA3 protein levels, resulting in increased recruitment of Kif2a to the mitotic spindle, a concomitant reduction in spindle formation, and chromosome alignment defects. Furthermore, c-Cbl depletion induced centrosome over-duplication and centriole amplification. Therefore, we concluded that c-Cbl controls spindle dynamics and centriole duplication through its E3 ligase activity against DDA3.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2019

    0 29 591

    Crystal Structure of the Regulatory Domain of MexT, a Transcriptional Activator of the MexEFOprN Efflux Pump in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Suhyeon Kim, Songhee H. Kim, Jinsook Ahn, Inseong Jo, Zee-Won Lee, Sang Ho Choi, and NamChul Ha

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(12): 850-857 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0168
    Abstract

    Abstract : The Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has multiple multidrug efflux pumps. MexT, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, functions as a transcriptional activator of the MexEF-OprN efflux system. MexT consists of an N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD). Little is known regarding MexT ligands and its mechanism of activation. We elucidated the crystal structure of the MexT RD at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure comprised two protomer chains in a dimeric arrangement. MexT possessed an arginine-rich region and a hydrophobic patch lined by a variable loop, both of which are putative ligand-binding sites. The three-dimensional structure of MexT provided clues to the interacting ligand structure. A DNase I footprinting assay of full-length MexT identified two MexT-binding sequence in the mexEF-oprN promoter. Our findings enhance the understanding of the regulation of MexT-dependent activation of efflux pumps.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2019

    0 35 767

    Chromatin Interacting Factor OsVIL2 Is Required for Outgrowth of Axillary Buds in Rice

    Jinmi Yoon, Lae-Hyeon Cho, Sichul Lee, Richa Pasriga, Win Tun, Jungil Yang, Hyeryung Yoon, Hee Joong Jeong, Jong-Seong Jeon, and Gynheung An

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(12): 858-868 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0141
    Abstract

    Abstract : Shoot branching is an essential agronomic trait that impacts on plant architecture and yield. Shoot branching is determined by two independent steps: axillary meristem formation and axillary bud outgrowth. Although several genes and regulatory mechanism have been studied with respect to shoot branching, the roles of chromatin-remodeling factors in the developmental process have not been reported in rice. We previously identified a chromatin-remodeling factor OsVIL2 that controls the trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) at target genes. In this study, we report that loss-of-function mutants in OsVIL2 showed a phenotype of reduced tiller number in rice. The reduction was due to a defect in axillary bud (tiller) outgrowth rather than axillary meristem initiation. Analysis of the expression patterns of the tiller-related genes revealed that expression of OsTB1, which is a negative regulator of bud outgrowth, was increased in osvil2 mutants. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that OsVIL2 binds to the promoter region of OsTB1 chromatin in wild-type rice, but the binding was not observed in osvil2 mutants. Tiller number of double mutant osvil2 ostb1 was similar to that of ostb1, suggesting that osvil2 is epistatic to ostb1. These observations indicate that OsVIL2 suppresses OsTB1 expression by chromatin modification, thereby inducing bud outgrowth.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2019

    0 47 804

    Cell-Based IL-15:IL-15Rα Secreting Vaccine as an Effective Therapy for CT26 Colon Cancer in Mice

    Van Anh Do Thi, Hyung Min Jeon, Sang Min Park, Hayyoung Lee, and Young Sang Kim

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(12): 869-883 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0188
    Abstract

    Abstract : Interleukin (IL)-15 is an essential immune-modulator with high potential for use in cancer treatment. Natural IL-15 has a low biological potency because of its short half-life and difficulties in mass-production. IL-15Rα, a member of the IL-15 receptor complex, is famous for its high affinity to IL-15 and its ability to lengthen the half-life of IL-15. We have double-transfected IL-15 and its truncated receptor IL-15Rα into CT26 colon cancer cells to target them for intracellular assembly. The secreted IL-15:IL-15Rα complexes were confirmed in ELISA and Co-IP experiments. IL-15:IL-15Rα secreting clones showed a higher anti-tumor effect than IL-15 secreting clones. Furthermore, we also evaluated the vaccine and therapeutic efficacy of the whole cancer-cell vaccine using mitomycin C (MMC)-treated IL-15:IL-15Rα secreting CT26 clones. Three sets of experiments were evaluated; (1) therapeutics, (2) vaccination, and (3) long-term protection. Wild-type CT26-bearing mice treated with a single dose of MMC-inactivated secreted IL-15:IL-15Rα clones prolonged survival compared to the control group. Survival of MMC-inactivated IL-15:IL-15Rα clone-vaccinated mice (without any further adjuvant) exceeded up to 100%. This protection effect even lasted for at least three months after the immunization. Secreted IL-15:IL-15Rα clones challenging trigger anti-tumor response via CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and natural killer (NK) cell-dependent cytotoxicity. Our result suggested that cell-based vaccine secreting IL-15:IL-15Rα, may offer the new tools for immunotherapy to treat cancer.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2019

    0 43 731
    Abstract

    Abstract : Piperlongumine (PL), a natural alkaloid compound isolated from long pepper (Piper longum), can selectively kill cancer cells, but not normal cells, by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The objective of this study was to investigate functional roles of expression of SETDB1 and FosB during PL treatment in MCF7 breast cancer cells. PL downregulates SETDB1 expression, and decreased SETDB1 expression enhanced caspase 9 dependent-PARP cleavage during PL-induced cell death. PL treatment generated ROS. ROS inhibitor NAC (N-acetyl cysteine) recovered SETDB1 expression decreased by PL. Decreased SETDB1 expression induced transcriptional activity of FosB during PL treatment. PARP cleavage and positive annexin V level were increased during PL treatment with FosB overexpression whereas PARP cleavage and positive annexin V level were decreased during PL treatment with siFosB transfection, implying that FosB might be a pro-apoptotic protein for induction of cell death in PL-treated MCF7 breast cancer cells. PL induced cell death in A549 lung cancer cells, but molecular changes involved in the induction of these cell deaths might be different. These results suggest that SETDB1 mediated FosB expression may induce cell death in PL-treated MCF7 breast cancer cells.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2019

    0 50 1054

    Augmenter of Liver Regeneration Alleviates Renal Hypoxia-Reoxygenation Injury by Regulating Mitochondrial Dynamics in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells

    Rui-ting Long, Jun-bo Peng, Li-li Huang, Gui-ping Jiang, Yue-juan Liao, Hang Sun, Yu-dong Hu, and Xiao-hui Liao

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(12): 893-905 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0060
    Abstract

    Abstract : Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion processes that closely related to their function. Disruption of mitochondrial dynamics has been demonstrated in acute kidney injury (AKI), which could eventually result in cell injury and death. Previously, we reported that augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) alleviates renal tubular epithelial cell injury. Here, we gained further insights into whether the renoprotective roles of ALR are associated with mitochondrial dynamics. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics were examined in experimental models of renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR). In a model of hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR) injury in vitro, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and mitochondrial fission process protein 1 (MTFP1), two key proteins of mitochondrial fission, were downregulated in the Lv-ALR + HR group. ALR overexpression additionally had an impact on phosphorylation of Drp1 Ser637 during AKI. The inner membrane fusion protein, Optic Atrophy 1 (OPA1), was significantly increased whereas levels of outer membrane fusion proteins Mitofusin-1 and -2 (Mfn1, Mfn2) were not affected in the Lv-ALR + HR group, compared with the control group. Furthermore, the mTOR/4E-BP1 signaling pathway was highly activated in the Lv-ALR + HR group. ALR overexpression led to suppression of HR-induced apoptosis. Our collective findings indicate that ALR gene transfection alleviates mitochondrial injury, possibly through inhibiting fission and promoting fusion of the mitochondrial inner membrane, both of which contribute to reduction of HK-2 cell apoptosis. Additionally, fission processes are potentially mediated by promoting tubular cell survival through activating the mTOR/4E-BP1 signaling pathway.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2019

    0 45 1433

    Attenuation of Experimental Autoimmune Hepatitis in Mice with Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Carrying MicroRNA-223-3p

    Feng-Bin Lu, Da-Zhi Chen, Lu Chen, En-De Hu, Jin-Lu Wu, Hui Li, Yue-Wen Gong, Zhuo Lin, Xiao-Dong Wang, Ji Li, Xiao-Ya Jin, Lan-Man Xu, and Yong-Ping Chen

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(12): 906-918 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.2283
    Abstract

    Abstract : MicroRNA-223-3p (miR-223-3p) is one of the potential microRNAs that have been shown to alleviate inflammatory responses in pre-clinical investigations and is highly encased in exosomes derived from bone mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-exosomes). MSC-exosomes are able to function as carriers to deliver microRNAs into cells. Autoimmune hepatitis is one of the challenging liver diseases with no effective treatment other than steroid hormones. Here, we examined whether MSC-exosomes can transfer miR-223-3p to treat autoimmune hepatitis in an experimental model. We found that MSC-exosomes were successfully incorporated with miR-223-3p and delivered miR-223-3p into macrophages. Moreover, there was no toxic effect of exosomes on the macrophages. Furthermore, treatments of either exosomes or exosomes with miR-223-3p successfully attenuated inflammatory responses in the liver of autoimmune hepatitis and inflammatory cytokine release in both the liver and macrophages. The mechanism may be related to the regulation of miR-223-3p level and STAT3 expression in the liver and macrophages. These results suggest that MSC-exosomes can be used to deliver miR-223-3p for the treatment of autoimmune hepatitis.

Mol. Cells
Nov 30, 2021 Vol.44 No.11
COVER PICTURE
3D quantitative images of the vesicular structure and the nucleolus using label free optical diffraction tomography (Kim et al., pp. 851-860).

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