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  • MinireviewOctober 31, 2019

    0 60 1215
    Abstract

    Abstract : Transfer RNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) play a role in various cellular processes. Accumulating evidence has revealed that tsRNAs are deeply implicated in human diseases, such as various cancers and neurological disorders, suggesting that tsRNAs should be investigated to develop novel therapeutic intervention. tsRNAs provide more complexity to the physiological role of transfer RNAs by repressing or activating protein synthesis with distinct mechanisms. Here, we highlight the detailed mechanism of tsRNA-mediated dual regulation in protein synthesis and discuss the necessity of novel sequencing technology to learn more about tsRNAs.

  • Research ArticleOctober 31, 2019

    0 52 945

    GIGANTEA Regulates the Timing Stabilization of CONSTANS by Altering the Interaction between FKF1 and ZEITLUPE

    Dae Yeon Hwang, Sangkyu Park, Sungbeom Lee, Seung Sik Lee, Takato Imaizumi, and Young Hun Song

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(10): 693-701 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0199
    Abstract

    Abstract : Plants monitor changes in day length to coordinate their flowering time with appropriate seasons. In Arabidopsis, the diel and seasonal regulation of CONSTANS (CO) protein stability is crucial for the induction of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene in long days. FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 (FKF1) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL) proteins control the shape of CO expression profile antagonistically, although regulation mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we show that GIGANTEA (GI) protein modulates the stability and nuclear function of FKF1, which is closely related to the stabilization of CO in the afternoon of long days. The abundance of FKF1 protein is decreased by the gi mutation, but increased by GI overexpression throughout the day. Unlike the previous report, the translocation of FKF1 to the nucleus was not prevented by ZTL overexpression. In addition, the FKF1-ZTL complex formation is higher in the nucleus than in the cytosol. GI interacts with ZTL in the nucleus, implicating the attenuation of ZTL activity by the GI binding and, in turn, the sequestration of FKF1 from ZTL in the nucleus. We also found that the CO-ZTL complex presents in the nucleus, and CO protein abundance is largely reduced in the afternoon by ZTL overexpression, indicating that ZTL promotes CO degradation by capturing FKF1 in the nucleus under these conditions. Collectively, our findings suggest that GI plays a pivotal role in CO stability for the precise control of flowering by coordinating balanced functional properties of FKF1 and ZTL.

  • Research ArticleOctober 31, 2019

    0 41 308
    Abstract

    Abstract : Neuroinflammation is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease (PD). We previously reported that our novel synthetic compound KMS99220 has a good pharmacokinetic profile, enters the brain, exerts neuroprotective effect, and inhibits NF-κB activation. To further assess the utility of KMS99220 as a potential therapeutic agent for PD, we tested whether KMS99220 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in vivo and examined the molecular mechanism mediating this phenomenon. In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated mice, oral administration of KMS99220 attenuated microglial activation and decreased the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) in the nigrostriatal? system. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged BV-2 microglial cells, KMS99220 suppressed the production and expression of IL-1β. In the activated microglia, KMS99220 reduced the phosphorylation of IκB kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAP kinase; this effect was mediated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), as both gene silencing and pharmacological inhibition of HO-1 abolished the effect of KMS99220. KMS99220 induced nuclear translocation of the transcription factor Nrf2 and expression of the Nrf2 target genes including HO-1. Together with our earlier findings, our current results show that KMS99220 may be a potential therapeutic agent for neuroinflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases such as PD.

  • Research ArticleOctober 31, 2019

    0 38 466

    The Role of Rice Vacuolar Invertase2 in Seed Size Control

    Dae-Woo Lee, Sang-Kyu Lee, Md Mizanor Rahman, Yu-Jin Kim, Dabing Zhang, and Jong-Seong Jeon

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(10): 711-720 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0109
    Abstract

    Abstract : Sink strength optimizes sucrose import, which is fundamental to support developing seed grains and increase crop yields, including those of rice (Oryza sativa). In this regard, little is known about the function of vacuolar invertase (VIN) in controlling sink strength and thereby seed size. Here, in rice we analyzed mutants of two VINs, OsVIN1 and OsVIN2, to examine their role during seed development. In a phenotypic analysis of the T-DNA insertion mutants, only the OsVIN2 mutant osvin2-1 exhibited reduced seed size and grain weight. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the small seed grains of osvin2-1 can be attributed to a reduction in spikelet size. A significant decrease in VIN activity and hexose level in the osvin2-1 spikelets interfered with spikelet growth. In addition, significant reduction in starch and increase in sucrose, which are characteristic features of reduced turnover and flux of sucrose due to impaired sink strength, were evident in the pre-storage stage of osvin2-1 developing grains. In situ hybridization analysis found that expression of OsVIN2 was predominant in the endocarp of developing grains. A genetically complemented line with a native genomic clone of OsVIN2 rescued reduced VIN activity and seed size. Two additional mutants, osvin2-2 and osvin2-3 generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 method, exhibited phenotypes similar to those of osvin2-1 in spikelet and seed size, VIN activity, and sugar metabolites. These results clearly demonstrate an important role of OsVIN2 as sink strength modulator that is critical for the maintenance of sucrose flux into developing seed grains.

  • Research ArticleOctober 31, 2019

    0 38 433

    Recovery of TRIM25-Mediated RIG-I Ubiquitination through Suppression of NS1 by RNA Aptamers

    Hye-Min Woo, Jin-Moo Lee, Chul-Joong Kim, Jong-Soo Lee, and Yong-Joo Jeong

    Mol. Cells 2019; 42(10): 721-728 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0157
    Abstract

    Abstract : Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza virus has been shown to inhibit the innate immune response by blocking the induction of interferon (IFN). In this study, we isolated two single-stranded RNA aptamers specific to NS1 with Kd values of 1.62 ± 0.30 nM and 1.97 ± 0.27 nM, respectively, using a systematic evolution of ligand by exponential enrichment (SELEX) procedure. The selected aptamers were able to inhibit the interaction of NS1 with tripartite motif-containing protein 25 (TRIM25), and suppression of NS1 enabled retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) to be ubiquitinated regularly by TRIM25. Additional luciferase reporter assay and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) experiments demonstrated that suppression of NS1 by the selected aptamers induced IFN production. It is noted that viral replication was also inhibited through IFN induction in the presence of the selected aptamers. These results suggest that the isolated aptamers are strongly expected to be new therapeutic agents against influenza infection.

  • Research ArticleOctober 31, 2019

    0 29 666
    Abstract

    Abstract : Autophagy is an important process for protein recycling. Oligomerization of p62/SQSTM1 is an essential step in this process and is achieved in two steps. Phox and Bem1p (PB1) domains can oligomerize through both basic and acidic surfaces in each molecule. The ZZ-type zinc finger (ZZ) domain binds to target proteins and promotes higher-oligomerization of p62. This mechanism is an important step in routing target proteins to the autophagosome. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the PB1 homo-dimer and modeled the p62 PB1 oligomers. These oligomer models were represented by a cylindrical helix and were compared with the previously determined electron microscopic map of a PB1 oligomer. To accurately compare, we mathematically calculated the lead length and radius of the helical oligomers. Our PB1 oligomer model fits the electron microscopy map and is both bendable and stretchable as a flexible helical filament.

Mol. Cells
Nov 30, 2021 Vol.44 No.11
COVER PICTURE
3D quantitative images of the vesicular structure and the nucleolus using label free optical diffraction tomography (Kim et al., pp. 851-860).

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