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  • MinireviewAugust 31, 2018

    0 166 3849
    Abstract

    Abstract : The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a critical organelle for protein synthesis, folding and modification, and lipid synthesis and calcium storage. Dysregulation of ER functions leads to the accumulation of misfolded- or unfolded-protein in the ER lumen, and this triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), which restores ER homeostasis. The UPR is characterized by three distinct downstream signaling pathways that promote cell survival or apoptosis depending on the stressor, the intensity and duration of ER stress, and the cell type. Mammalian cells express the UPR transducers IRE1, PERK, and ATF6, which control transcriptional and translational responses to ER stress. Direct links between ER stress and immune responses are also evident, but the mechanisms by which UPR signaling cascades are coordinated with immunity remain unclear. This review discusses recent investigations of the roles of ER stress in immune responses that lead to differentiation, maturation, and cytokine expression in immune cells. Further understanding of how ER stress contributes to the pathogenesis of immune disorders will facilitate the development of novel therapies that target UPR pathways.

  • MinireviewAugust 31, 2018

    0 62 3361
    Abstract

    Abstract : Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, an emerging immunotherapy, has demonstrated promising clinical results in hematological malignancies including B-cell malignancies. However, accessibility to this transformative medicine is highly limited due to the complex process of manufacturing, limited options for target antigens, and insufficient anti-tumor responses against solid tumors. Advances in gene-editing technologies, such as the development of Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs), Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs), and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR/Cas9), have provided novel engineering strategies to address these limitations. Development of next-generation CAR-T cells using gene-editing technologies would enhance the therapeutic potential of CAR-T cell treatment for both hematologic and solid tumors. Here we summarize the unmet medical needs of current CAR-T cell therapies and gene-editing strategies to resolve these challenges as well as safety concerns of gene-edited CAR-T therapies.

  • ArticleAugust 31, 2018

    0 39 981
    Abstract

    Abstract : Plant defence responses to various biotic stresses via systemic acquired resistance (SAR) are induced by avirulent pathogens and chemical compounds, including certain plant hormones in volatile form, such as methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate. SAR refers to the observation that, when a local part of a plant is exposed to elicitors, the entire plant exhibits a resistance response. In the natural environment, plants are continuously exposed to avirulent pathogens that induce SAR and volatile emissions affecting neighbouring plants as well as the plant itself. However, the underlying mechanism has not been intensively studied. In this study, we evaluated whether plants “memorise” the previous activation of plant immunity when exposed repeatedly to plant defensive volatiles such as methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate. We hypothesised that stronger SAR responses would occur in plants treated with repeated applications of the volatile plant defence compound MeSA than in those exposed to a single or no treatment. Nicotiana benthamiana seedlings subjected to repeated applications of MeSA exhibited greater protection against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum than the control. The increase in SAR capacity in response to repeated MeSA treatment was confirmed by analysing the defence priming of the expression of N. benthamiana Pathogenesis-Related 1a (NbPR1a) and NbPR2 by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR compared with the control. We propose the concept of plant memory of plant defence volatiles and suggest that SAR is strengthened by the repeated perception of volatile compounds in plants.

  • ArticleAugust 31, 2018

    0 39 977
    Abstract

    Abstract : Mutations in spliceosome components have been implicated in carcinogenesis of various types of cancer. One of the most frequently found is U2AF1 S34F missense mutation. Functional analyses of this mutation have been largely limited to hematological malignancies although the mutation is also frequently seen in other cancer types including lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). We examined the impact of knockdown (KD) of wild type (wt) U2AF1 and ectopic expression of two splice variant S34F mutant proteins in terms of alternative splicing (AS) pattern and cell cycle progression in A549 lung cancer cells. We demonstrate that induction of distinct AS events and disruption of mitosis at distinct sub-stages result from KD and ectopic expression of the mutant proteins. Importantly, when compared with the splicing pattern seen in LUAD patients with U2AF1 S34F mutation, ectopic expression of S34F mutants but not KD was shown to result in common AS events in several genes involved in cell cycle progression. Our study thus points to an active role of U2AF1 S34F mutant protein in inducing cell cycle dysregulation and mitotic stress. In addition, alternatively spliced genes which we describe here may represent novel potential markers of lung cancer development.

  • ArticleAugust 31, 2018

    0 50 878

    Abrogation of the Circadian Nuclear Receptor REV-ERBα Exacerbates 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration

    Jeongah Kim, Sangwon Jang, Mijung Choi, Sooyoung Chung, Youngshik Choe, Han Kyoung Choe, Gi Hoon Son, Kunsoo Rhee, and Kyungjin Kim

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(8): 742-752 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0201
    Abstract

    Abstract : Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons, particularly in the substantia nigra (SN). Although circadian dysfunction has been suggested as one of the pathophysiological risk factors for PD, the exact molecular link between the circadian clock and PD remains largely unclear. We have recently demonstrated that REV-ERBα, a circadian nuclear receptor, serves as a key molecular link between the circadian and DAergic systems. It competitively cooperates with NURR1, another nuclear receptor required for the optimal development and function of DA neurons, to control DAergic gene transcription. Considering our previous findings, we hypothesize that REV-ERBα may have a role in the onset and/or progression of PD. In the present study, we therefore aimed to elucidate whether genetic abrogation of REV-ERBα affects PD-related phenotypes in a mouse model of PD produced by a unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the dorsal striatum. REV-ERBα deficiency significantly exacerbated 6-OHDA-induced motor deficits as well as DAergic neuronal loss in the vertebral midbrain including the SN and the ventral tegmental area. The exacerbated DAergic degeneration likely involves neuroinflammation-mediated neurotoxicity. The Rev-erbα knockout mice showed prolonged microglial activation in the SN along with the overproduction of interleukin 1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in response to 6-OHDA. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates for the first time that genetic abrogation of REV-ERBα can increase vulnerability of DAergic neurons to neurotoxic insults, such as 6-OHDA, thereby implying that its normal function may be beneficial for maintaining DAergic neuron populations during PD progression.

  • ArticleAugust 31, 2018

    0 102 763
    Abstract

    Abstract : Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is identified as a signaling adaptor protein that regulates bone metabolism, immunity, and the development of several tissues. Therefore, its functions are closely associated with multiple diseases. TRAF6 is also involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis under steady-state conditions, but the role of TRAF6 in modulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) during the developmental stages remains unknown. Here, we report that the deletion of TRAF6 in hematopoietic lineage cells resulted in the upregulation of HSPCs in the fetal liver at the prenatal period. However, in the early postnatal period, deletion of TRAF6 drastically diminished HSPCs in the bone marrow (BM), with severe defects in BM development and extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen being identified. In the analysis of adult HSPCs in a BM reconstitution setting, TRAF6 played no significant role in HSPC homeostasis, albeit it affected the development of T cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the role of TRAF6 in regulating HSPCs is altered in a spatial and temporal manner during the developmental course of mice.

  • ArticleAugust 31, 2018

    0 32 593
    Abstract

    Abstract : Adiponectin, a hormone produced by adipose tissue, is very abundant in plasma, and its anti- and pro-inflammatory effects are reported. However, the mechanisms of these pro- and anti-inflammatory effects are not fully defined. Herein, we evaluated the dual inflammatory response mechanism of adiponectin in macrophages. Short-term globular adiponectin (gAd) treatment induced IκBα degradation, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and TNF-α production in RAW 264.7 cells. Polymyxin B pretreatment did not block gAd-induced IκBα degradation, and heated gAd was unable to degrade IκBα, suggesting that the effects of gAd were not due to endotoxin contamination. gAd activated IKK and Akt, and inhibition of either IKK or Akt by dominant-negative IKKβ (DN-IKKβ) or DN-Akt overexpression blocked gAd-induced IκBα degradation, suggesting that short-term incubation with gAd mediates inflammatory responses by activating the IκB/NF-κB and PI3K/Akt pathways. Contrastingly, long-term stimulation with gAd induced, upon subsequent stimulation, tolerance to gAd, lipopolysaccharide, and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide, which is associated with gAd-induced downregulation of IL-receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1) due to IRAK-1 transcriptional repression. Conclusively, our findings demonstrate that the pro- and anti-inflammatory responses to gAd in innate immune cells are time-dependent, and mediated by the activation of the IκB/NF-κB pathway, and IRAK-1 downregulation, respectively.

  • ArticleAugust 31, 2018

    0 50 697

    Oleanolic Acids Inhibit Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Signaling in Endothelial Cells: Implication for Anti-Angiogenic Therapy

    Da-Hye Lee, Jungsul Lee, Jongwook Jeon, Kyung-Jin Kim, Jang-Hyuk Yun, Han-Seok Jeong, Eun Hui Lee, Young Jun Koh, and Chung-Hyun Cho

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(8): 771-780 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0207
    Abstract

    Abstract : Angiogenesis must be precisely controlled because uncontrolled angiogenesis is involved in aggravation of disease symptoms. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) signaling is a key pathway leading to angiogenic responses in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Therefore, targeting VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling may be effective at modulating angiogenesis to alleviate various disease symptoms. Oleanolic acid was verified as a VEGFR-2 binding chemical from anticancer herbs with similar binding affinity as a reference drug in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) entry 3CJG of model A coordination. Oleanolic acid effectively inhibited VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 activation and angiogenesis in HU-VECs without cytotoxicity. We also verified that oleanolic acid inhibits in vivo angiogenesis during the development and the course of the retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) model in the mouse retina. Taken together, our results suggest a potential therapeutic benefit of oleanolic acid for inhibiting angiogenesis in proangiogenic diseases, including retinopathy.

  • ArticleAugust 31, 2018

    0 46 1132

    A WUSCHEL Homeobox Transcription Factor, OsWOX13, Enhances Drought Tolerance and Triggers Early Flowering in Rice

    Pham-Thi Minh-Thu, Joung Sug Kim, Songhwa Chae, Kyong Mi Jun, Gang-Seob Lee, Dong-Eun Kim, Jong-Joo Cheong, Sang Ik Song, Baek Hie Nahm, and Yeon-Ki Kim

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(8): 781-798 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0203
    Abstract

    Abstract : Plants have evolved strategies to cope with drought stress by maximizing physiological capacity and adjusting developmental processes such as flowering time. The WOX13 orthologous group is the most conserved among the clade of WOX homeodomain-containing proteins and is found to function in both drought stress and flower development. In this study, we isolated and characterized OsWOX13 from rice. OsWOX13 was regulated spatially in vegetative organs but temporally in flowers and seeds. Overexpression of OsWOX13 (OsWOX13-ov) in rice under the rab21 promoter resulted in drought resistance and early flowering by 7–10 days. Screening of gene expression profiles in mature leaf and panicles of OsWOX13-ov showed a broad spectrum of effects on biological processes, such as abiotic and biotic stresses, exerting a cross-talk between responses. Protein binding microarray and electrophoretic mobility shift assay analyses supported ATTGATTG as the putative cis-element binding of OsWOX13. OsDREB1A and OsDREB1F, drought stress response transcription factors, contain ATTGATTG motif(s) in their promoters and are preferentially expressed in OsWOX13-ov. In addition, Heading date 3a and OsMADS14, regulators in the flowering pathway and development, were enhanced in OsWOX13-ov. These results suggest that OsWOX13 mediates the stress response and early flowering and, thus, may be a regulator of genes involved in drought escape.

  • ArticleAugust 31, 2018

    0 34 1191

    A Novel Reciprocal Crosstalk between RNF168 and PARP1 to Regulate DNA Repair Processes

    Jae Jin Kim, Seo Yun Lee, Soyeon Kim, Jee Min Chung, Mira Kwon, Jung Hyun Yoon, Sangwook Park, Yiseul Hwang, Dongsun Park, Jong-Soo Lee, and Ho Chul Kang

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(8): 799-807 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0078
    Abstract

    Abstract : Emerging evidence has suggested that cellular crosstalk between RNF168 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) contributes to the precise control of the DNA damage response (DDR). However, the direct and reciprocal functional link between them remains unclear. In this report, we identified that RNF168 ubiquitinates PARP1 via direct interaction and accelerates PARP1 degradation in the presence of poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) chains, metabolites of activated PARP1. Through mass spectrometric analysis, we revealed that RNF168 ubiquitinated multiple lysine residues on PARP1 via K48-linked ubiquitin chain formation. Consistent with this, micro-irradiation-induced PARP1 accumulation at damaged chromatin was significantly increased by knockdown of endogenous RNF168. In addition, it was confirmed that abnormal changes of HR and HNEJ due to knockdown of RNF168 were restored by overexpression of WT RNF168 but not by reintroduction of mutants lacking E3 ligase activity or PAR binding ability. The comet assay also revealed that both PAR-binding and ubiquitin-conjugation activities are indispensable for the RNF168-mediated DNA repair process. Taken together, our results suggest that RNF168 acts as a counterpart of PARP1 in DDR and regulates the HR/NHEJ repair processes through the ubiquitination of PARP1.

Mol. Cells
Nov 30, 2021 Vol.44 No.11
COVER PICTURE
3D quantitative images of the vesicular structure and the nucleolus using label free optical diffraction tomography (Kim et al., pp. 851-860).

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