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  • MinireviewJuly 31, 2018

    0 75 2274
    Abstract

    Abstract : The capacity of differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which include both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, into cardiomyocytes (CMs) in vitro provides an unlimited resource for human CMs for a wide range of applications such as cell based cardiac repair, cardiac drug toxicology screening, and human cardiac disease modeling. However, their applicability is significantly limited by immature phenotypes. It has been well known that currently available CMs derived from hPSCs (hPSC-CMs) represent immature embryonic or fetal stage CMs and are functionally and structurally different from mature human CMs. To overcome this critical issue, several new approaches aiming to generate more mature hPSC-CMs have been developed. This review describes recent approaches to generate more mature hPSC-CMs including their scientific principles, advantages, and limitations.

  • MinireviewJuly 31, 2018

    0 62 1172

    Structural Basis for LAR-RPTP?Mediated Synaptogenesis

    Seoung Youn Won, and Ho Min Kim

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(7): 622-630 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0202
    Abstract

    Abstract : Leukocyte common antigen-related protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) are cellular receptors of heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans that regulate neurite outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. LAR-RPTPs have also received particular attention as the major presynaptic hubs for synapse organization through selective binding to numerous postsynaptic adhesion partners. Recent structural studies on LAR-RPTP?mediated trans-synaptic adhesion complexes have provided significant insight into the molecular basis of their specific interactions, the key codes for their selective binding, as well as the higher-order clustering of LAR-RPTPs necessary for synaptogenic activity. In this review, we summarize the structures of LAR-RPTPs in complex with various postsynaptic adhesion partners and discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying LAR-RPTP?mediated synaptogenesis.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2018

    0 46 844

    Self-Reprogramming of Spermatogonial Stem Cells into Pluripotent Stem Cells without Microenvironment of Feeder Cells

    Seung-Won Lee, Guangming Wu, Na Young Choi, Hye Jeong Lee, Jin Seok Bang, Yukyeong Lee, Minseong Lee, Kisung Ko, Hans R. Sch?ler, and Kinarm Ko

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(7): 631-638 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2294
    Abstract

    Abstract : Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) derived from mouse testis are unipotent in regard of spermatogenesis. Our previous study demonstrated that SSCs can be fully reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells, so called germline-derived pluripotent stem cells (gPS cells), on feeder cells (mouse embryonic fibroblasts), which supports SSC proliferation and induction of pluripotency. Because of an uncontrollable microenvironment caused by interactions with feeder cells, feeder-based SSC reprogramming is not suitable for elucidation of the self-reprogramming mechanism by which SSCs are converted into pluripotent stem cells. Recently, we have established a Matrigel-based SSC expansion culture system that allows long-term SSC proliferation without mouse embryonic fibroblast support. In this study, we developed a new feeder-free SSC self-reprogramming protocol based on the Matrigel-based culture system. The gPS cells generated using a feeder-free reprogramming system showed pluripotency at the molecular and cellular levels. The differentiation potential of gPS cells was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Our study shows for the first time that the induction of SSC pluripotency can be achieved without feeder cells. The newly developed feeder-free self-reprogramming system could be a useful tool to reveal the mechanism by which unipotent cells are self-reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2018

    0 26 830

    Necroptosis Is a Mechanism of Death in Mouse Induced Hepatocyte-Like Cells Reprogrammed from Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts

    Yun-Suk Lee, Kyung-Mee Park, Lina Yu, Ho-Hyun Kwak, Hee-Jun Na, Kyung-Sun Kang, and Heung-Myong Woo

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(7): 639-645 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2353
    Abstract

    Abstract : Liver transplantation is recommended for patients with liver failure, but liver donors are limited. This necessitates the development of artificial livers, and hepatocytes are necessary to develop such artificial livers. Although induced hepatocyte-like cells are used in artificial livers, the characteristics of mouse induced hepatocyte-like cells (miHeps) reprogrammed with embryonic fibroblasts have not yet been clarified. Therefore, this study investigated the mechanisms underlying the survival, function, and death of miHeps. miHeps showed decreased cell viability, increased cytotoxicity, decreased hepatic function, and albumin and urea secretion at passage 14. Addition of necrostatin-1 (NEC-1) to miHeps inhibited necrosome formation and reactive oxygen species generation and increased cell survival. However, NEC-1 did not affect the hepatic function of miHeps. These results provide a basis for development of artificial livers using hepatocytes.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2018

    0 37 726
    Abstract

    Abstract : Neurodegeneration can result in memory loss in the central nervous system (CNS) and impairment of taste and smell in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The neurodegeneration seen in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by functional loss of dopaminergic neurons. Recent studies have also found a role for dopaminergic neurons in regulating taste memory rewards in insects. To investigate how taste memories and sugar sensitivity can be affected in PD, we utilized the DJ- mutant fruit fly, DJ-ex54, as a PD model. We performed binary choice feeding assays, electrophysiology and taste-mediated memory tests to explore the function of the DJ- gene in terms of sugar sensitivity as well as associative taste memory. We found that PD flies exhibited an impaired ability to discriminate sucrose across a range of sugar concentrations, with normal responses at only very high concentrations of sugar. They also showed an impairment in associative taste memory. We highlight that the taste impairment and memory defect in DJ-ex54 can be recovered by the expression of wild-type DJ- gene in the dopaminergic neurons. We also emphasized the role of dopaminergic neurons in restoring taste memory function. This impaired memory property of DJ-ex54 flies also allows them to be used as a model system for finding supplementary dietary foods that can improve memory function. Here we provide evidence that the associative taste memory of both control and DJ-ex54 flies can be enhanced with dietary supplementation of the medicinal plant, omija.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2018

    0 39 833
    Abstract

    Abstract : The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) binds to adenosine-uridine AU-rich elements in the 3′-untranslated region of messenger RNAs and facilitates rapid degradation of the target mRNAs. Therefore, it regulates the expression of multiple cancer and immunity-associated transcripts. Furthermore, a lack of TTP in cancer cells influences cancer progression and predicts poor survival. Although the functions of TTP on cancer cells have previously been researched, the mechanism of TTP on the interaction between cancer cells with their microenvironment remains undiscovered. In this study, we admed to determine the role of cancer cell TTP during the interaction between tumor and immune cells, specifically regulatory T cells (Tregs). We evaluate the capability of TTP to modulate the antitumor immunity of GC and explored the underlying mechanism. The overexpression of TTP in GC cells dramatically increased peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocyte (PBML) -mediated cytotoxicity against GC cells. Increased cytotoxicity against TTP-overexpressed GC cells by PBMLs was determined by Treg development and infiltration. Surprisingly, we found the stabilization of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) mRNA was declining while TTP was elevated. The PD-L1 protein level was reduced in TTP-abundant GC cells. PD-L1 gas been found to play a pivotal role in Treg development and functional maintenance in immune system. Taken together, our results suggest the overexpression of TTP in GC cells not only affects cell survival and apoptosis but also increases PBMLs -mediated cytotoxicity against GC cells to decelerate tumor progression. Moreover, we identified PD-L1 as a critical TTP-regulated factor that contributes to inhibiting antitumor immunity.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2018

    0 156 842

    Histone Deacetylase 701 (HDT701) Induces Flowering in Rice by Modulating Expression of OsIDS1

    Lae-Hyeon Cho, Jinmi Yoon, Antt Htet Wai, and Gynheung An

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(7): 665-675 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0148
    Abstract

    Abstract : Rice is a facultative short-day (SD) plant in which flowering is induced under SD conditions or by other environmental factors and internal genetic programs. Overexpression of Histone Deacetylase 701 (HDT701) accelerates flowering in hybrid rice. In this study, mutants defective in HDT701 flowered late under both SD and long-day conditions. Expression levels of florigens Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and Rice Flowering Locus T1 (RFT1), and their immediate upstream floral activator Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), were significantly decreased in the hdt701 mutants, indicating that HDT701 functions upstream of Ehd1 in controlling flowering time. Transcript levels of OsINDETERMINATE SPIKELET 1 (OsIDS1), an upstream repressor of Ehd1, were significantly increased in the mutants while those of OsGI and Hd1 were reduced. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that HDT701 directly binds to the promoter region of OsIDS1. These results suggest that HDT701 induces flowering by suppressing OsIDS1.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2018

    0 47 880

    Time-Lapse Live-Cell Imaging Reveals Dual Function of Oseg4, Drosophila WDR35, in Ciliary Protein Trafficking

    Nayoung Lee, Jina Park, Yong Chul Bae, Jung Ho Lee, Chul Hoon Kim, and Seok Jun Moon

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(7): 676-683 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0179
    Abstract

    Abstract : Cilia are highly specialized antennae-like organelles that extend from the cell surface and act as cell signaling hubs. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a specialized form of intracellular protein trafficking that is required for the assembly and maintenance of cilia. Because cilia are so important, mutations in several IFT components lead to human disease. Thus, clarifying the molecular functions of the IFT proteins is a high priority in cilia biology. Live imaging in various species and cellular preparations has proven to be an important technique in both the discovery of IFT and the mechanisms by which it functions. Live imaging of Drosophila cilia, however, has not yet been reported. Here, we have visualized the movement of IFT in Drosophila cilia using time-lapse live imaging for the first time. We found that NOMPB-GFP (IFT88) moves according to distinct parameters depending on the ciliary segment. NOMPB-GFP moves at a similar speed in proximal and distal cilia toward the tip (~0.45 μm/s). As it returns to the ciliary base, however, NOMPB-GFP moves at ~0.12 μm/s in distal cilia, accelerating to ~0.70 μm/s in proximal cilia. Furthermore, while live imaging NOMPB-GFP, we observed one of the IFT proteins required for retrograde movement, Oseg4 (WDR35), is also required for anterograde movement in distal cilia. We anticipate our time-lapse live imaging analysis technique in Drosophila cilia will be a good starting point for a more sophisticated analysis of IFT and its molecular mechanisms.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2018

    0 40 835
    Abstract

    Abstract : Upregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression is an important factor in the cellular survival and cancer. Although growing evidence suggests that hTERT inhibits cellular apoptosis by telomere-independent functions, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Here, we show that hTERT contains a BH3-like motif, a short peptide sequence found in BCL-2 family proteins, and interacts with anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins MCL-1 and BCL-xL, suggesting a functional link between hTERT and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Additionally, we propose that hTERT can be categorized into the atypical BH3-only proteins that promote cellular survival, possibly due to the non-canonical interaction between hTERT and antiapoptotic proteins. Although the detailed mechanisms underlying the hTERT BH3-like motif functions and interactions between hTERT and BCL-2 family proteins have not been elucidated, this work proposes a possible connection between hTERT and BCL-2 family members and reconsiders the role of the BH3-like motif as an interaction motif.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2018

    0 28 829

    CTCF Regulates Otic Neurogenesis via Histone Modification in the Neurog1 Locus

    Jeong-Oh Shin, Jong-Joo Lee, Mikyoung Kim, Youn Wook Chung, Hyehyun Min, Jae-Yoon Kim, Hyoung-Pyo Kim, and Jinwoong Bok

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(7): 695-702 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0230
    Abstract

    Abstract : The inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for hearing and balance. Formation of the inner ear is dependent on tight regulation of spatial and temporal expression of genes that direct a series of developmental processes. Recently, epigenetic regulation has emerged as a crucial regulator of the development of various organs. However, what roles higher-order chromatin organization and its regulator molecules play in inner ear development are unclear. CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a highly conserved 11-zinc finger protein that regulates the three-dimensional architecture of chromatin, and is involved in various gene regulation processes. To delineate the role of CTCF in inner ear development, the present study investigated inner ear-specific Ctcf knockout mouse embryos (Pax2-Cre; Ctcffl/fl). The loss of Ctcf resulted in multiple defects of inner ear development and severely compromised otic neurogenesis, which was partly due to a loss of Neurog1 expression. Furthermore, reduced Neurog1 gene expression by CTCF knockdown was found to be associated with changes in histone modification at the gene’s promoter, as well as its upstream enhancer. The results of the present study demonstrate that CTCF plays an essential role in otic neurogenesis by modulating histone modification in the Neurog1 locus.

Mol. Cells
Nov 30, 2021 Vol.44 No.11
COVER PICTURE
3D quantitative images of the vesicular structure and the nucleolus using label free optical diffraction tomography (Kim et al., pp. 851-860).

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