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  • MinireviewJune 30, 2018

    0 79 5221

    Current Challenges of Streptococcus Infection and Effective Molecular, Cellular, and Environmental Control Methods in Aquaculture

    Anshuman Mishra, Gyu-Hwi Nam, Jeong-An Gim, Hee-Eun Lee, Ara Jo, and Heui-Soo Kim

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(6): 495-505 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2154
    Abstract

    Abstract : Several bacterial etiological agents of streptococcal disease have been associated with fish mortality and serious global economic loss. Bacterial identification based on biochemical, molecular, and phenotypic methods has been routinely used, along with assessment of morphological analyses. Among these, the molecular method of 16S rRNA sequencing is reliable, but presently, advanced genomics are preferred over other traditional identification methodologies. This review highlights the geographical variation in strains, their relatedness, as well as the complexity of diagnosis, pathogenesis, and various control methods of streptococcal infections. Several limitations, from diagnosis to control, have been reported, which make prevention and containment of streptococcal disease difficult. In this review, we discuss the challenges in diagnosis, pathogenesis, and control methods and suggest appropriate molecular (comparative genomics), cellular, and environmental solutions from among the best available possibilities.

  • MinireviewJune 30, 2018

    0 72 2182
    Abstract

    Abstract : The transcriptional regulation of genes determines the fate of animal cell differentiation and subsequent organ development. With the recent progress in genome-wide technologies, the genomic landscapes of enhancers have been broadly explored in mammalian genomes, which led to the discovery of novel specific subsets of enhancers, termed super-enhancers. Super-enhancers are large clusters of enhancers covering the long region of regulatory DNA and are densely occupied by transcription factors, active histone marks, and co-activators. Accumulating evidence points to the critical role that super-enhancers play in cell type-specific development and differentiation, as well as in the development of various diseases. Here, I provide a comprehensive description of the optimal approach for identifying functional units of super-enhancers and their unique chromatin features in normal development and in diseases, including cancers. I also review the recent updated knowledge on novel approaches of targeting super-enhancers for the treatment of specific diseases, such as small-molecule inhibitors and potential gene therapy. This review will provide perspectives on using super-enhancers as biomarkers to develop novel disease diagnostic tools and establish new directions in clinical therapeutic strategies.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2018

    0 27 1136

    Characterization of Primary Epithelial Cells Derived from Human Salivary Gland Contributing to in vivo Formation of Acini-like Structures

    Hyun Nam, Ji-Hye Kim, Ji-Yoon Hwang, Gee-Hye Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Mi Jang, Jong-Ho Lee, Kyungpyo Park, and Gene Lee

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(6): 515-522 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0060
    Abstract

    Abstract : Patients with head and neck cancer are treated with therapeutic irradiation, which can result in irreversible salivary gland dysfunction. Because there is no complete cure for such patients, stem cell therapy is an emerging alternative for functional restoration of salivary glands. In this study, we investigated in vitro characteristics of primarily isolated epithelial cells from human salivary gland (Epi-SGs) and in vivo formation of acini-like structures by Epi-SGs. Primarily isolated Epi-SGs showed typical epithelial cell-like morphology and expressed E-cadherin but not N-cadherin. Epi-SGs expressed epithelial stem cell (EpiSC) and embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers. During long-term culture, the expression of EpiSC and ESC markers was highly detected and maintained within the core population with small size and low cytoplasmic complexity. The core population expressed cytokeratin 7 and cytokeratin 14, known as duct markers indicating that Epi-SGs might be originated from the duct. When Epi-SGs were transplanted in vivo with Matrigel, acini-like structures were readily formed at 4 days after transplantation and they were maintained at 7 days after transplantation. Taken together, our data suggested that Epi-SGs might contain stem cells which were positive for EpiSC and ESC markers, and Epi-SGs might contribute to the regeneration of acini-like structures in vivo. We expect that Epi-SGs will be useful source for the functional restoration of damaged salivary gland.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2018

    0 36 733

    MicroRNA-3200-5p Promotes Osteosarcoma Cell Invasion via Suppression of BRMS1

    Gen Li, Li Li, Qi Sun, Jiezhou Wu, Wei Ge, Guanghua Lu, and Ming Cai

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(6): 523-531 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2200
    Abstract

    Abstract : Tumour metastasis is one of the most serious challenges of cancer as it is the major cause of mortality in patients with solid tumours, including osteosarcoma (OS). In this regard, anti-metastatic genes have potential for metastasis inhibition strategies. Recent evidence showed the importance of breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) in control of OS invasiveness, but the regulation of BRMS1 in OS remains largely unknown. Here, we used bioinformatics analyses to predict BRMS1-targeting microRNAs (miRNAs), and the functional binding of miRNAs to BRMS1 mRNA was evaluated using a dual luciferase reporter assay. Among all BRMS1-targeting miRNAs, only miR-151b, miR-7-5p and miR-3200-5p showed significant expression in OS specimens. Specifically, we found that only miR-3200-5p significantly inhibited protein translation of BRMS1 via pairing to the 3′-UTR of the BRMS1 mRNA. Moreover, we detected significantly lower BRMS1 and significantly higher miR-3200-5p in the OS specimens compared to the paired adjacent non-tumour bone tissues. Furthermore, BRMS1 and miR-3200-5p levels were inversely correlated to each other. Low BRMS1 was correlated with metastasis and poor patient survival. In vitro, overexpression of miR-3200-5p significantly decreased BRMS1 levels and promoted OS cell invasion and migration, while depletion of miR-3200-5p significantly increased BRMS1 levels and inhibited OS cell invasion and migration. Thus, our study revealed that miR-3200-5p may be a critical regulator of OS cell invasiveness.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2018

    0 46 1036
    Abstract

    Abstract : Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In order to investigate a new treatment fot GIST, we hypothesized the effect of miR-374b targeting PTEN gene-mediated PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway on proliferation and apoptosis of human gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) cells. We obtained GIST tissues and adjacent normal tissues from 143 patients with GIST to measure the levels of miR-374b, PTEN, PI3K, Akt, caspase9, Bax, MMP2, MMP9, ki67, PCNA, P53 and cyclinD1. Finally, cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis were detected. According to the KFGG analysis of DEGs, PTEN was involved in a variety of signaling pathways and miRs were associated with cancer development. The results showed that MiR-374b was highly expressed, while PTEN was downregulated in the GIST tissues. The levels of miR-374b, PI3K, AKT and PTEN were related to tumor diameter and pathological stage. Additionally, miR-374b increased the mRNA and protein levels of PI3K, Akt, MMP2, MMP9, P53 and cyclinD1, suggesting that miR-374b activates PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in GIST-T1 cells. Moreover, MiR-374b promoted cell viability, migration, invasion, and cell cycle entry, and inhibited apoptosis in GIST cells. Taken together, the results indicated that miR-374b promotes viability and inhibits apoptosis of human GIST cells by targeting PTEN gene through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Thus, this study provides a new potential target for GIST treatment.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2018

    0 45 919

    Crystal Structures of Spleen Tyrosine Kinase in Complex with Two Novel 4-Aminopyrido[4,3-d] Pyrimidine Derivative Inhibitors

    Sang Jae Lee, Jang-Sik Choi, Seoung Min Bong, Hae-Jun Hwang, Jaesang Lee, Ho-Juhn Song, Jaekyoo Lee, Jung-Ho Kim, Jong Sung Koh, and Byung Il Lee

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(6): 545-552 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2219
    Abstract

    Abstract : Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a cytosolic non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase. Because SYK mediates key receptor signaling pathways involving the B cell receptor and Fc receptors, SYK is an attractive target for autoimmune disease and cancer treatments. To date, representative oral SYK inhibitors, including fostamatinib (R406 or R788), entospletinib (GS-9973), cerdulatinib (PRT062070), and TAK-659, have been assessed in clinical trials. Here, we report the crystal structures of SYK in complex with two newly developed inhibitors possessing 4-aminopyrido[4,3-D]pyrimidine moieties (SKI-G-618 and SKI-O-85). One SYK inhibitor (SKI-G-618) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against SYK, whereas the other inhibitor (SKI-O-85) exhibited a low inhibitory profile against SYK. Binding mode analysis indicates that a highly potent SYK inhibitor might be developed by modifying and optimizing the functional groups that interact with Leu377, Gly378, and Val385 in the G-loop and the nearby region in SYK. In agreement with our structural analysis, one of our SYK inhibitor (SKI-G-618) shows strong inhibitory activities on the β-hexosaminidase release and phosphorylation of SYK/Vav in RBL-2H3 cells. Taken together, our findings have important implications for the design of high affinity SYK inhibitors.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2018

    0 29 641

    Icariside II Promotes the Differentiation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells to Schwann Cells to Preserve Erectile Function after Cavernous Nerve Injury

    Tao Zheng, Tian-biao Zhang, Chao-liang Wang, Wei-xing Zhang, Dong-hui Jia, Fan Yang, Yang-yang Sun, Xiao-ju Ding, and Rui Wang

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(6): 553-561 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2236
    Abstract

    Abstract : Icariside II (ICA II) is used in erectile dysfunction treatment. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are efficient at improving erectile function. This study aimed to explore the action mechanism of ADSCs in improving erectile function. ADSCs were isolated from the adipose tissues of rats. Cell proliferation was determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The expressions of mRNA and protein were determined separately through qRT-PCR and western blot. The endogenous expressions of related genes were regulated using recombinant plasmids and cell transfection. A Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay was performed to determine the interaction between miR-34a and STAT3. Rat models with bilateral cavernous nerve injuries (BCNIs) were used to assess erectile function through the detection of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and intracavernosal pressure (ICP). ICA II promoted ADSCs’ proliferation and differentiation to Schwann cells (SCs) through the inhibition of miR-34a. Suppressed miR-34a promoted the differentiation of ADSCs to SCs by upregulating STAT3. ICA II promoted the differentiation of ADSCs to SCs through the miR-34a/STAT3 pathway. The combination of ICA II and ADSCs preserved the erectile function of the BCNI model rats. ADSCs treated with ICA II markedly preserved the erectile function of the BCNI model rats, which was reversed through miR-34a overexpression. ICA II promotes the differentiation of ADSCs to SCs through the miR-34a/STAT3 pathway, contributing to erectile function preservation after the occurrence of a cavernous nerve injury.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2018

    0 30 708

    Tazarotene-Induced Gene 1 Interacts with DNAJC8 and Regulates Glycolysis in Cervical Cancer Cells

    Chun-Hua Wang, Rong-Yaun Shyu, Chang-Chieh Wu, Mao-Liang Chen, Ming-Cheng Lee, Yi-Yin Lin, Lu-Kai Wang, Shun-Yuan Jiang, and Fu-Ming Tsai

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(6): 562-574 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2347
    Abstract

    Abstract : The tazarotene-induced gene 1 (TIG1) protein is a retinoid-inducible growth regulator and is considered a tumor suppressor. Here, we show that DnaJ heat shock protein family member C8 (DNAJC8) is a TIG1 target that regulates glycolysis. Ectopic DNAJC8 expression induced the translocation of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) into the nucleus, subsequently inducing glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression to promote glucose uptake. Silencing either DNAJC8 or PKM2 alleviated the upregulation of GLUT1 expression and glucose uptake induced by ectopic DNAJC8 expression. TIG1 interacted with DNAJC8 in the cytosol, and this interaction completely blocked DNAJC8-mediated PKM2 translocation and inhibited glucose uptake. Furthermore, increased glycose uptake was observed in cells in which TIG1 was silenced. In conclusion, TIG1 acts as a pivotal repressor of DNAJC8 to enhance glucose uptake by partially regulating PKM2 translocation.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2018

    0 20 700

    TNF-α-Induced SOX5 Upregulation Is Involved in the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Through KLF4 Signal Pathway

    Lijun Xu, Lili Zheng, Zhifang Wang, Chong Li, Shan Li, Xuedi Xia, Pengyan Zhang, Li Li, and Lixia Zhang

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(6): 575-581 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2359
    Abstract

    Abstract : Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) is a common systemic skeletal disease characterized by reduced bone mass and microarchitecture deterioration. Although differentially expressed SOX5 has been found in bone marrow from ovariectomized mice, its role in osteogenic differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) from bone marrow in PMOP remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the biological function of SOX5 and explore its molecular mechanism in hMSCs from patients with PMOP. Our findings showed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of SOX5 were upregulated in hMSCs isolated from bone marrow samples of PMOP patients. We also found that SOX5 overexpression decreased the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of osteoblast markers including Collagen I, Runx2 and Osterix, which were increased by SOX5 knockdown using RNA interference. Furthermore, TNF-α notably upregulated the SOX5 mRNA expression level, and SOX5 knockdown reversed the effect of TNF-α on osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. In addition, SOX5 overexpression increased Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) gene expression, which was decreased by SOX5 silencing. KLF4 knockdown abrogated the suppressive effect of SOX5 overexpression on osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Taken together, our results indicated that TNF-α-induced SOX5 upregulation inhibited osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs through KLF4 signal pathway, suggesting that SOX5 might be a novel therapeutic target for PMOP treatment.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2018

    0 33 683

    Long-Term Priming by Three Small Molecules Is a Promising Strategy for Enhancing Late Endothelial Progenitor Cell Bioactivities

    Yeon-Ju Kim, Seung Taek Ji, Da Yeon Kim, Seok Yun Jung, Songhwa Kang, Ji Hye Park, Woong Bi Jang, Jisoo Yun, Jongseong Ha, Dong Hyung Lee, and Sang-Mo Kwon

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(6): 582-590 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0011
    Abstract

    Abstract : Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) play a pivotal role in vascular regeneration in ischemic tissues; however, their therapeutic application in clinical settings is limited due to the low quality and quantity of patient-derived circulating EPCs. To solve this problem, we evaluated whether three priming small molecules (tauroursodeoxycholic acid, fucoidan, and oleuropein) could enhance the angiogenic potential of EPCs. Such enhancement would promote the cellular bioactivities and help to develop functionally improved EPC therapeutics for ischemic diseases by accelerating the priming effect of the defined physiological molecules. We found that preconditioning of each of the three small molecules significantly induced the differentiation potential of CD34+ stem cells into EPC lineage cells. Notably, long-term priming of OECs with the three chemical cocktail (OEC-3C) increased the proliferation potential of EPCs via ERK activation. The migration, invasion, and tube-forming capacities were also significantly enhanced in OEC-3Cs compared with unprimed OECs. Further, the cell survival ratio was dramatically increased in OEC-3Cs against H2O2-induced oxidative stress via the augmented expression of Bcl-2, a prosurvival protein. In conclusion, we identified three small molecules for enhancing the bioactivities of ex vivo-expanded OECs for vascular repair. Long-term 3C priming might be a promising methodology for EPC-based therapy against ischemic diseases.

Mol. Cells
Nov 30, 2021 Vol.44 No.11
COVER PICTURE
3D quantitative images of the vesicular structure and the nucleolus using label free optical diffraction tomography (Kim et al., pp. 851-860).

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