Dongseok Park, Sungwon Bae, Taek Han Yoon, and Jaewon KoMol. Cells 2018; 41(5): 373-380 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0081
Abstract : Synapses and neural circuits form with exquisite specificity during brain development to allow the precise and appropriate flow of neural information. Although this property of synapses and neural circuits has been extensively investigated for more than a century, molecular mechanisms underlying this property are only recently being unveiled. Recent studies highlight several classes of cell-surface proteins as organizing hubs in building structural and functional architectures of specific synapses and neural circuits. In the present mini-review, we discuss recent findings on various synapse organizers that confer the distinct properties of specific synapse types and neural circuit architectures in mammalian brains, with a particular focus on the hippocampus and cerebellum.
Aram Ko, Su Yeon Han, and Jaewhan SongMol. Cells 2018; 41(5): 381-389 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0100
Abstract : ARF is a tumor suppressor protein that has a pivotal role in the prevention of cancer development through regulating cell proliferation, senescence, and apoptosis. As a factor that induces senescence, the role of ARF as a tumor suppressor is closely linked to the p53-MDM2 axis, which is a key process that restrains tumor formation. Thus, many cancer cells either lack a functional ARF or p53, which enables them to evade cell oncogenic stress-mediated cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis. In particular, the
Xiaoyi Hu, Jiyu Miao, Min Zhang, Xiaofei Wang, Zhenzhen Wang, Jia Han, Dongdong Tong, and Chen HuangMol. Cells 2018; 41(5): 390-400 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2078
Abstract : Studies have revealed that miR-103a-3p contributes to tumor growth in several human cancers, and high miR-103a-3p expression is associated with poor prognosis in advanced gastric cancer (GC) patients. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis has shown that miR-103a-3p is upregulated in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) stomach cancer cohort. These results suggest that miR-103a-3p may function as an oncogene in GC. The present study aimed to investigate the role of miR-103a-3p in human GC. miR-103a-3p expression levels were increased in 33 clinical GC specimens compared with adjacent nontumor stomach tissues. Gain- and loss-of-function studies were performed to identify the correlation between miR-103a-3p and tumorigenesis in human GC. Inhibiting miR-103a-3p suppressed GC cell proliferation and blocked the S-G2/M transition in MKN-45/SGC-7901 cells, whereas miR-103a-3p overexpression improved GC cell proliferation and promoted the S-G2/M transition
Li-li Gu, Zhe-lun Shen, Yang-Lei Li, Yi-Qi Bao, and Hong LuMol. Cells 2018; 41(5): 401-412 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2180
Abstract : Oxymatrine (OMT) often used in treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus infection in clinic. However, OMT?induced liver injury has been reported. In this study, we aim to investigate the possible mechanism of OMT-induced hepatotoxicity in human normal liver cells (L02). Exposed cells to OMT, the cell viability was decreased and apoptosis rate increased, the intracellular markers of oxidative stress were changed. Simultaneously, OMT altered apoptotic related proteins levels, including Bcl-2, Bax and pro-caspase-8/-9/-3. In addition, OMT enhanced the protein levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress makers (GRP78/Bip, CHOP, and cleaved-Caspase-4) and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), as well as the mRNA levels of GRP78/Bip, CHOP, caspase-4, and ER stress sensors (IREI, ATF6, and PERK). Pre-treatment with Z-VAD-fmk, JNK inhibitor SP600125 and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, partly improved the survival rates and restored OMT-induced cellular damage, and reduced caspase-3 cleavage. SP600125 or NAC reduced OMT-induced p-JNK and NAC significantly lowered caspase-4. Furthermore, 4-PBA, the ER stress inhibitor, weakened inhibitory effect of OMT on cells, on the contrary, TM worsen. 4-PBA also reduced the levels of p-JNK and cleaved-caspase-3 proteins. Therefore, OMT-induced injury in L02 cells was related to ROS mediated p-JNK and ER stress induction. Antioxidant, by inhibition of p-JNK or ER stress, may be a feasible method to alleviate OMT-induced liver injury.
Hye Jeong Kim, Hyun Suk Cho, Jung Hun Pak, Tackmin Kwon, Jai-Heon Lee, Doh-Hoon Kim, Dong Hee Lee, Chang-Gi Kim, and Young-Soo ChungMol. Cells 2018; 41(5): 413-422 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2254
Abstract : Soybean transgenic plants with ectopically expressed
Dayong Ding, Changfeng Li, Tiancheng Zhao, Dandan Li, Lei Yang, and Bin ZhangMol. Cells 2018; 41(5): 423-435 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2258
Abstract : This investigation was aimed at working out the combined role of lncRNA H19, miR-29b and Wnt signaling in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). In the aggregate, 185 CRC tissues and corresponding para-carcinoma tissues were gathered. The human CRC cell lines (i.e. HT29, HCT116, SW480 and SW620) and normal colorectal mucosa cell line (NCM460) were also purchased. Si-H19, si-NC, miR-29b-3p mimics, miR-29b-3p inhibitor, si-PGRN and negative control (NC) were, respectively, transfected into the CRC cells. Lucif-erase reporter plasmids were prepared to evaluate the transduction activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was arranged to confirm the targeted relationship between H19 and miR-29b-3p, as well as between miR-29b-3p and PGRN. Finally, the proliferative and invasive capacities of CRC cells were appraised through transwell, MTT and scratch assays. As a result, over-expressed H19 and down-expressed miR-29b-3p displayed close associations with the CRC patients’ poor prognosis (
Deepmala Shrestha, Daeun Choi, and Kiwon SongMol. Cells 2018; 41(5): 436-443 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2266
Abstract : The actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in the entry of mitosis as well as in cytokinesis. In a previous study, we showed that actin disruption delays mitotic entry at G2/M by sustained activation of extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in primary cells but not in transformed cancer cell lines. Here, we examined the mechanism of cell cycle delay at G2/M by actin dysfunction in IMR-90 normal human fibroblasts. We observed that de-polymerization of actin with cytochalasin D (CD) constitutively activated ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) and induced inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2 (Tyr 15) in IMR-90 cells. In the presence of an actin defect in IMR-90 cells, activating phosphorylation of Wee1 kinase (Ser 642) and inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc25C (Ser 216) was also maintained. However, when kinase-dead RSK (DN-RSK) was over-expressed, we observed sustained activation of ERK1/2, but no delay in the G2/M transition, demonstrating that RSK functions downstream of ERK in cell cycle delay by actin dysfunction. In DN-RSK overexpressing IMR-90 cells treated with CD, phosphorylation of Cdc25C (Ser 216) was blocked and phosphorylation of Cdc2 (Tyr 15) was decreased, but the phosphorylation of Wee1 (Ser 642) was maintained, demonstrating that RSK directly controls phosphorylation of Cdc25C (Ser 216), but not the activity of Wee1. These results strongly suggest that actin dysfunction in primary cells activates ERK1/2 to inhibit Cdc2, delaying the cell cycle at G2/M by activating downstream RSK, which phosphorylates and blocks Cdc25C, and by directly activating Wee1.
Jin Woo Park, Hana Cho, Hyein Oh, Ji-Young Kim, and Sang-Beom SeoMol. Cells 2018; 41(5): 444-453 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2311
Abstract : Aberrations in histone modifications are being studied in mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-AF9-driven acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we focused on the regulation of the differentiation of the MLL-AF9 type AML cell line THP-1. We observed that, upon phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment, THP-1 cells differentiated into monocytes by down-regulating Aurora kinase A (AURKA), resulting in a reduction in H3S10 phosphorylation. We revealed that the AURKA inhibitor alisertib accelerates the expression of the H3K27 demethylase KDM6B, thereby dissociating AURKA and YY1 from the
Juhwan Kim, Sueun Lee, Sohi Kang, Tae-Il Jeon, Man-Jong Kang, Tae-Hoon Lee, Yong Sik Kim, Key-Sun Kim, Heh-In Im, and Changjong MoonMol. Cells 2018; 41(5): 454-464 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0023
Abstract : Crosstalk between G-protein signaling and glutamatergic transmission within the brain reward circuits is critical for long-term emotional effects (depression and anxiety), cravings, and negative withdrawal symptoms associated with opioid addiction. A previous study showed that Regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) may be implicated in opiate action in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, the mechanism of the NAc-specific RGS4 actions that induce the behavioral responses to opiates remains largely unknown. The present study used a short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knock-down of RGS4 in the NAc of the mouse brain to investigate the relationship between the activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and RGS4 in the NAc during morphine reward. Additionally, the shRNA-mediated RGS4 knock-down was implemented in NAc/striatal primary-cultured neurons to investigate the role that striatal neurons have in the morphine-induced activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors. The results of this study show that the NAc-specific knockdown of RGS4 significantly increased the behaviors associated with morphine and did so by phosphorylation of the GluR1 (Ser831) and NR2A (Tyr1325) glutamate receptors in the NAc. Furthermore, the knock-down of RGS4 enhanced the phosphorylation of the GluR1 and NR2A glutamate receptors in the primary NAc/striatal neurons during spontaneous morphine withdrawal. These findings show a novel molecular mechanism of RGS4 in glutamatergic transmission that underlies the negative symptoms associated with morphine administration.
Jae-Woong Min, Youngil Koh, Dae-Yoon Kim, Hyung-Lae Kim, Jeong A Han, Yu-Jin Jung, Sung-Soo Yoon, and Sun Shim ChoiMol. Cells 2018; 41(5): 465-475 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0051
Abstract : The advent of massively parallel sequencing, also called next-generation sequencing (NGS), has dramatically influenced cancer genomics by accelerating the identification of novel molecular alterations. Using a whole genome sequencing (WGS) approach, we identified somatic coding and noncoding variants that may contribute to leukemogenesis in 11 adult Korean acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, with serial tumor samples (primary and relapse) available for 5 of them; somatic variants were identified in 187 AML-related genes, including both novel (SIN3A, C10orf53, PTPRR, and RERGL) and well-known (NPM1, RUNX1, and CEPBA) AML-related genes. Notably, SIN3A expression shows prognostic value in AML. A newly designed method, referred to as “hot-zone” analysis, detected two putative functional noncoding variants that can alter transcription factor binding affinity near PPP1R10 and SRSF1. Moreover, the functional importance of the SRSF1 noncoding variant was further investigated by luciferase assays, which showed that the variant is critical for the regulation of gene expression leading to leukemogenesis. We expect that further functional investigation of these coding and noncoding variants will contribute to a more in-depth understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of AML and the development of targeted anti-cancer drugs.