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  • MinireviewApril 30, 2018

    0 43 1241
    Abstract

    Abstract : Vertebrate organ development is accompanied by demarcation of tissue compartments, which grow coordinately with their neighbors. Hence, perturbing the coordinative growth of neighboring tissue compartments frequently results in organ malformation. The growth of tissue compartments is regulated by multiple intercellular and intracellular signaling pathways, including the Hippo signaling pathway that limits the growth of various organs. In the optic neuroepithelial continuum, which is partitioned into the retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and ciliary margin (CM) during eye development, the Hippo signaling activity operates differentially, as it does in many tissues. In this review, we summarize recent studies that have explored the relationship between the Hippo signaling pathway and growth of optic neuroepithelial compartments. We will focus particularly on the roles of a tumor suppressor, neurofibromin 2 (NF2), whose expression is not only dependent on compartment-specific transcription factors, but is also subject to regulation by a Hippo-Yap feedback signaling circuit.

  • MinireviewApril 30, 2018

    0 81 1256
    Abstract

    Abstract : Cells cope with diverse intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli in order to make adaptations for survival. The epigenetic landscape plays a crucial role in cellular adaptation, as it integrates the information generated from stimuli. Signaling pathways induced by stimuli communicate with chromatin to change the epigenetic landscape through regulation of epigenetic modifiers. Metabolic dynamics altered by these stimuli also affect the activity of epigenetic modifiers. Here, I review the current understanding of epigenetic regulation via signaling and metabolic pathways. In addition, I will discuss possible ways to achieve specificity of epigenetic modifications through the cooperation of stimuli-induced signal transduction and metabolic reprogramming.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2018

    0 51 616
    Abstract

    Abstract : IFIT1 (also known as ISG56) is a member of the interferon-inducible protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) family. IFITs are strongly induced by type I interferon (IFN), double-stranded RNA and virus infection. Here, we investigated IFIT1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in human bronchus epithelial cells (BEAS-2Bs) induced by the H9N2 virus and inactivated viral particle at different time points. We also investigated the effect of H9N2 virus and viral particle infection on IFN-α/β production, and assessed whether hemagglutinin or neuraminidase protein induced IFIT1 expression. Results showed that both H9N2 virus infection and viral particle inoculation induced the expression of IFIT1 at mRNA and protein levels in the two cell lines. Hemagglutinin or neuraminidase protein binding alone is not sufficient to induce IFIT1 expression. Surprisingly, the expression patterns of IFIT1 in response to H9N2 virus and viral particles in the two cell lines were opposite, and production kinetics of IFN-α/β also differed. An additional finding was that induction of IFIT1 in response to H9N2 virus infection or viral particle inoculation was more sensitive in HUVECs than in BEAS-2Bs. Our data offers new insight into the innate immune response of endothelial cells to H9N2 virus infection.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2018

    0 33 875

    Cigarette Smoke Extract Enhances IL-17A-Induced IL-8 Production via Up-Regulation of IL-17R in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Kyoung-Hee Lee, Chang-Hoon Lee, Jisu Woo, Jiyeong Jeong, An-Hee Jang, and Chul-Gyu Yoo

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(4): 282-289 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2123
    Abstract

    Abstract : Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine mainly derived from T helper 17 cells and is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoke (CS) has been considered as a primary risk factor of COPD. However, the interaction between CS and IL-17A and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been clarified. In the current study, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on IL-17A-induced IL-8 production in human bronchial epithelial cells, and sought to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. IL-8 production was significantly enhanced following treatment with both IL-17A and CSE, while treatment with either IL-17A or CSE alone caused only a slight increase in IL-8 production. CSE increased the transcription of IL-17RA/RC and surface membrane expression of IL-17R, which was suppressed by an inhibitor of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway (LY294002). CSE caused inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) via the PI3K/Akt pathway. Blockade of GSK-3β inactivation by overexpression of constitutively active GSK-3β (S9A) completely suppressed the CSE-induced up-regulation of IL-17R expression and the CSE-induced enhancement of IL-8 secretion. In conclusion, inactivation of GSK-3β via the PI3K/Akt pathway mediates CSE-induced up-regulation of IL-17R, which contributes to the enhancement of IL-17A-induced IL-8 production.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2018

    0 75 1480

    Indole-3-Carbinol Promotes Goblet-Cell Differentiation Regulating Wnt and Notch Signaling Pathways AhR-Dependently

    Joo-Hung Park, Jeong-Min Lee, Eun-Jin Lee, Won-Bhin Hwang, and Da-Jeong Kim

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(4): 290-300 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2167
    Abstract

    Abstract : Using an in vitro model of intestinal organoids derived from intestinal crypts, we examined effects of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a phytochemical that has anticancer and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-activating abilities and thus is sold as a dietary supplement, on the development of intestinal organoids and investigated the underlying mechanisms. I3C inhibited the in vitro development of mouse intestinal organoids. Addition of α-naphthoflavone, an AhR antagonist or AhR siRNA transfection, suppressed I3C function, suggesting that I3C-mediated interference with organoid development is AhR-dependent. I3C increased the expression of Muc2 and lysozyme, lineage-specific genes for goblet cells and Paneth cells, respectively, but inhibits the expression of IAP, a marker gene for enterocytes. In the intestines of mice treated with I3C, the number of goblet cells was reduced, but the number of Paneth cells and the depth and length of crypts and villi were not changed. I3C increased the level of active nonphosphorylated β-catenin, but suppressed the Notch signal. As a result, expression of Hes1, a Notch target gene and a transcriptional repressor that plays a key role in enterocyte differentiation, was reduced, whereas expression of Math1, involved in the differentiation of secretory lineages, was increased. These results provide direct evidence for the role of AhR in the regulation of the development of intestinal stem cells and indicate that such regulation is likely mediated by regulation of Wnt and Notch signals.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2018

    0 34 729

    A Novel Tetrameric Assembly Configuration in VV2_1132, a LysR-Type Transcriptional Regulator in Vibrio vulnificus

    Yongdae Jang, Garam Choi, Seokho Hong, Inseong Jo, Jinsook Ahn, Sang Ho Choi, and Nam-Chul Ha

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(4): 301-310 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2190
    Abstract

    Abstract : LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) contain an N-terminal DNA binding domain (DBD) and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD). Typically, LTTRs function as homotetramers. VV2_1132 was identified in Vibrio vulnificus as an LTTR that is a homologue of HypT (also known as YjiE or QseD) in Escherichia coli. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of full-length VV2_1132 at a resolution of 2.2 ?, thereby revealing a novel combination of the domains in the tetrameric assembly. Only one DBD dimer in the tetramer can bind to DNA, because the DNA binding motifs of the other DBD dimer are completely buried in the tetrameric assembly. Structural and functional analyses of VV2_1132 suggest that it might not perform the same role as E. coli HypT, indicating that further study is required to elucidate the function of this gene in V. vulnificus. The unique structure of VV2_1132 extends our knowledge of LTTR function and mechanisms of action.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2018

    0 44 1317
    Abstract

    Abstract : The gaseous hormone ethylene influences many aspects of plant growth, development, and responses to a variety of stresses. The biosynthesis of ethylene is tightly regulated by various internal and external stimuli, and the primary target of the regulation is the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of ethylene biosynthesis. We have previously demonstrated that the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis is a common feature of most of the phytohormones in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings via the modulation of the protein stability of ACS. Here, we show that various phytohormones also regulate ethylene biosynthesis from etiolated rice seedlings in a similar manner to those in Arabidopsis. Cytokinin, brassinosteroids, and gibberellic acid increase ethylene biosynthesis without changing the transcript levels of neither OsACS nor ACC oxidases (OsACO), a family of enzymes catalyzing the final step of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway. Likewise, salicylic acid and abscisic acid do not alter the gene expression of OsACS, but both hormones downregulate the transcript levels of a subset of ACO genes, resulting in a decrease in ethylene biosynthesis. In addition, we show that the treatment of the phytohormones results in distinct etiolated seedling phenotypes, some of which resemble ethylene-responsive phenotypes, while others display ethylene-independent morphologies, indicating a complicated hormone crosstalk in rice. Together, our study brings a new insight into crosstalk between ethylene biosynthesis and other phytohormones, and provides evidence that rice ethylene biosynthesis could be regulated by the post-transcriptional regulation of ACS proteins.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2018

    0 37 645

    δ-Catenin Increases the Stability of EGFR by Decreasing c-Cbl Interaction and Enhances EGFR/Erk1/2 Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    Nensi Shrestha, Hridaya Shrestha, Taeyong Ryu, Hangun Kim, Shishli Simkhada, Young-Chang Cho, So-Yeon Park, Sayeon Cho, Kwang-Youl Lee, Jae-Hyuk Lee, and Kwonseop Kim

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(4): 320-330 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2292
    Abstract

    Abstract : δ-Catenin, a member of the p120-catenin subfamily of armadillo proteins, reportedly increases during the late stage of prostate cancer. Our previous study demonstrates that δ-catenin increases the stability of EGFR in prostate cancer cell lines. However, the molecular mechanism behind δ-catenin-mediated enhanced stability of EGFR was not explored. In this study, we hypothesized that δ-catenin enhances the protein stability of EGFR by inhibiting its lysosomal degradation that is mediated by c-casitas b-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl), a RING domain E3 ligase. c-Cbl monoubiquitinates EGFR and thus facilitates its internalization, followed by lysosomal degradation. We observed that δ-catenin plays a key role in EGFR stability and downstream signaling. δ-Catenin competes with c-Cbl for EGFR binding, which results in a reduction of binding between c-Cbl and EGFR and thus decreases the ubiquitination of EGFR. This in turn increases the expression of membrane bound EGFR and enhances EGFR/Erk1/2 signaling. Our findings add a new perspective on the role of δ-catenin in enhancing EGFR/Erk1/2 signaling-mediated prostate cancer.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2018

    0 36 843

    Structural Basis for Recognition of L-lysine, L-ornithine, and L-2,4-diamino Butyric Acid by Lysine Cyclodeaminase

    Kyungjin Min, Hye-Jin Yoon, Atsushi Matsuura, Yong Hwan Kim, and Hyung Ho Lee

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(4): 331-341 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2313
    Abstract

    Abstract : L-pipecolic acid is a non-protein amino acid commonly found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. It is a well-known precursor to numerous microbial secondary metabolites and pharmaceuticals, including anticancer agents, immunosuppressants, and several antibiotics. Lysine cyclodeaminase (LCD) catalyzes β-deamination of L-lysine into L-pipecolic acid using β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. Expression of a human homolog of LCD, μ-crystallin, is elevated in prostate cancer patients. To understand the structural features and catalytic mechanisms of LCD, we determined the crystal structures of Streptomyces pristinaespiralis LCD (SpLCD) in (i) a binary complex with NAD+, (ii) a ternary complex with NAD+ and L-pipecolic acid, (iii) a ternary complex with NAD+ and L-proline, and (iv) a ternary complex with NAD+ and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid. The overall structure of SpLCD was similar to that of ornithine cyclodeaminase from Pseudomonas putida. In addition, SpLCD recognized L-lysine, L-ornithine, and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid despite differences in the active site, including differences in hydrogen bonding by Asp236, which corresponds with Asp228 from Pseudomonas putida ornithine cyclodeaminase. The substrate binding pocket of SpLCD allowed substrates smaller than lysine to bind, thus enabling binding to ornithine and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid. Our structural and biochemical data facilitate a detailed understanding of substrate and product recognition, thus providing evidence for a reaction mechanism for SpLCD. The proposed mechanism is unusual in that NAD+ is initially converted into NADH and then reverted back into NAD+ at a late stage of the reaction.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2018

    0 33 1194
    Abstract

    Abstract : Flowering time is determined by florigens. These genes include, Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and Rice FT 1 (RFT1) in rice, which are specifically expressed in the vascular tissues of leaves at the floral transition stage. To study the cis-regulatory elements present in the promoter region of Hd3a, we generated transgenic plants carrying the 1.75-kb promoter fragment of Hd3a that was fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Plants expressing this construct conferred a vascular cell-specific expression pattern for the reporter gene. However, GUS was expressed in leaves at all developmental stages, including the early seedling stage when Hd3a was not detected. Furthermore, the reporter was expressed in roots at all stages. This suggests that the 1.75-kb region lackings cis-elements that regulate leaf-specific expression at the appropriate developmental stages. Deletion analyses of the promoter region indicated that regulatory elements determining vascular cell-specific expression are present in the 200-bp region between -245 bp and -45 bp from the transcription initiation site. By transforming the Hd3a?GUS construct to rice cultivar ‘Taichung 65’ which is defective in Ehd1, we observed that Ehd1 is the major regulatory element that controls Hd3a promoter activity.

Mol. Cells
Nov 30, 2021 Vol.44 No.11
COVER PICTURE
3D quantitative images of the vesicular structure and the nucleolus using label free optical diffraction tomography (Kim et al., pp. 851-860).

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