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  • MinireviewMarch 31, 2018

    0 53 1486
    Abstract

    Abstract : Chloroplasts are present in organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. These organelles are thought to have originated from photosynthetic cyanobacteria through endosymbiosis. During endosymbiosis, most cyanobacterial genes were transferred to the host nucleus. Therefore, most chloroplast proteins became encoded in the nuclear genome and must return to the chloroplast after translation. The N-terminal cleavable transit peptide (TP) is necessary and sufficient for the import of nucleus-encoded interior chloroplast proteins. Over the past decade, extensive research on the TP has revealed many important characteristic features of TPs. These studies have also shed light on the question of how the many diverse TPs could have evolved to target specific proteins to the chloroplast. In this review, we summarize the characteristic features of TPs. We also highlight recent advances in our understanding of TP evolution and provide future perspectives about this important research area.

  • MinireviewMarch 31, 2018

    0 98 1610

    New Insights into the Role of E2s in the Pathogenesis of Diseases: Lessons Learned from UBE2O

    Daniel Hormaechea-Agulla, Youngjo Kim, Min Sup Song, and Su Jung Song

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(3): 168-178 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0008
    Abstract

    Abstract : Intracellular communication via ubiquitin (Ub) signaling impacts all aspects of cell biology and regulates pathways critical to human development and viability; therefore aberrations or defects in Ub signaling can contribute to the pathogenesis of human diseases. Ubiquitination consists of the addition of Ub to a substrate protein via coordinated action of E1-activating, E2-conjugating and E3-ligating enzymes. Approximately 40 E2s have been identified in humans, and most are thought to be involved in Ub transfer; although little information is available regarding the majority of them, emerging evidence has highlighted their importance to human health and disease. In this review, we focus on recent insights into the pathogenetic roles of E2s (particularly the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2O [UBE2O]) in debilitating diseases and cancer, and discuss the tantalizing prospect that E2s may someday serve as potential therapeutic targets for human diseases.

  • ArticleMarch 31, 2018

    0 42 1051

    Altered Proteome of Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Bladder Cancer Patients Urine

    Jingyun Lee, Kimberly Q. McKinney, Antonis J. Pavlopoulos, Meng Niu, Jung Won Kang, Jae Won Oh, Kwang Pyo Kim, and Sunil Hwang

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(3): 179-187 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2110
    Abstract

    Abstract : Proteomic analysis of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from biological fluid is a powerful approach to discover potential biomarkers for human diseases including cancers, as EV secreted to biological fluids are originated from the affected tissue. In order to investigate significant molecules related to the pathogenesis of bladder cancer, EVs were isolated from patient urine which was analyzed by mass spectrometry based proteomics. Comparison of the EV proteome to the whole urine proteome demonstrated an increased number of protein identification in EV. Comparative MS analyses of urinary EV from control subjects and bladder cancer patients identified a total of 1,222 proteins. Statistical analyses provided 56 proteins significantly increased in bladder cancer urine, including proteins for which expression levels varied by cancer stage (P-value < 0.05). While urine represents a valuable, noninvasive specimen for biomarker discovery in urologic cancers, there is a high degree of intra- and inter-individual variability in urine samples. The enrichment of urinary EV demonstrated its capability and applicability of providing a focused identification of biologically relevant proteins in urological diseases.

  • ArticleMarch 31, 2018

    0 33 805

    Benzidine Induces Epithelial?Mesenchymal Transition of Human Bladder Cancer Cells through Activation of ERK5 Pathway

    Xin Sun, Tao Zhang, Qifei Deng, Qirui Zhou, Xianchao Sun, Enlai Li, Dexin Yu, and Caiyun Zhong

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(3): 188-197 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2113
    Abstract

    Abstract : Benzidine, a known carcinogen, is closely associated with the development of bladder cancer (BC). Epithelial?mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical pathophysiological process in BC progression. The underlying molecular mechanisms of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, especially extracellular regulated protein kinases 5 (ERK5), in regulating benzidine-induced EMT remains unclarified. Hence, two human bladder cell lines, T24 and EJ, were utilized in our study. Briefly, cell migration was assessed by wound healing assay, and cell invasion was determined by Transwell assay. Quantitative PCR and western blot were utilized to determine both gene expressions as well as protein levels of EMT and MAPK, respectively. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected to further determine ERK5 function. As a result, the migration and invasion abilities were enhanced, epithelial marker expression was decreased while mesenchymal marker expression was increased in human BC cell lines. Meanwhile, benzidine administration led to activation of ERK5 and activator protein 1 (AP-1) proteins, without effective stimulation of the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) or p38 pathways. Moreover, Benzidine-induced EMT and ERK5 activation were completely suppressed by XMD8-92 and siRNAs specific to ERK5. Of note, ERK1/2 was activated in benzidine-treated T24 cells, while benzidine-induced EMT could not be reversed by U0126, an ERK1/2 inhibitor, as indicated by further study. Collectively, our findings revealed that ERK5-mediated EMT was critically involved in benzidine-correlated BC progression, indicating the therapeutic significance of ERK5 in benzidine-related BC.

  • ArticleMarch 31, 2018

    0 35 659

    Post-Transcriptional Control of Tropoelastin in Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Affects Aortic Dissection Onset

    You-Fei Qi, Chang Shu, Zhan-Xiang Xiao, Ming-Yao Luo, Kun Fang, Yuan-Yuan Guo, Wen-Bo Zhang, and Jie Yue

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(3): 198-206 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2193
    Abstract

    Abstract : Aortic dissection (AD) is a catastrophic disease with high mortality and morbidity, characterized with fragmentation of elastin and loss of smooth muscle cells. Although AD has been largely attributable to polymorphisms defect in the elastin-coding gene, tropoelastin (TE), other undermined factors also appear to play roles in AD onset. Here, we investigated the effects of post-transcriptional control of TE by microRNAs (miRNAs) on elastin levels in aortic smooth muscle cells (ASMC). We found that miR-144-3p is a miRNA that targets TE mRNA in both human and mouse. Bioinformatics analyses and dual luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-144-3p inhibited protein translation of TE, through binding to the 3′-UTR of the TE mRNA. Interestingly, higher miR-144-3p levels and lower TE were detected in the ASMC obtained from AD patients, compared to those from non-AD controls. In a mouse model for human AD, infusion of adeno-associated viruses (serotype 6) carrying antisense for miR-144-3p (as-miR-144-3p) under CAG promoter significantly reduced the incidence and severity of AD, seemingly through enhancement of TE levels in ASMC. Thus, our data suggest an essential role of miR-144-3p on the pathogenesis of AD.

  • ArticleMarch 31, 2018

    0 38 824
    Abstract

    Abstract : Hypoxic culture is widely recognized as a method to efficiently expand human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) without loss of stem cell properties. However, the molecular basis of how hypoxia priming benefits MSC expansion remains unclear. In this report, our systemic quantitative proteomic and RT-PCR analyses revealed the involvement of hypoxic conditioning activated genes in the signaling process of the mitotic cell cycle. Introduction of screened two mitotic cyclins, CCNA2 and CCNB1, significantly extended the proliferation lifespan of MSCs in normoxic condition. Our results provide important molecular evidence that multipotency of human MSCs by hypoxic conditioning is determined by the mitotic cell cycle duration. Thus, the activation of mitotic cyclins could be a potential strategy to the application of stem cell therapy.

  • ArticleMarch 31, 2018

    0 49 1455

    OASL1 Traps Viral RNAs in Stress Granules to Promote Antiviral Responses

    Ji-Seon Kang, Yune-Sahng Hwang, Lark Kyun Kim, Sujung Lee, Wook-Bin Lee, Jeongsil Kim-Ha, and Young-Joon Kim

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(3): 214-223 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2293
    Abstract

    Abstract : Oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) protein family is the major interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes responsible for the activation of RNase L pathway upon viral infection. OAS-like (OASL) is also required for inhibition of viral growth in human cells, but the loss of one of its mouse homolog, OASL1, causes a severe defect in termination of type I interferon production. To further investigate the antiviral activity of OASL1, we examined its subcellular localization and regulatory roles in IFN production in the early and late stages of viral infection. We found OASL1, but not OASL2, formed stress granules trapping viral RNAs and promoted efficient RLR signaling in early stages of infection. Stress granule formation was dependent on RNA binding activity of OASL1. But in the late stages of infection, OASL1 interacted with IRF7 transcripts to inhibit translation resulting in down regulation of IFN production. These results implicate that OASL1 plays context dependent functions in the antiviral response for the clearance and resolution of viral infections.

  • ArticleMarch 31, 2018

    0 41 1176

    Increased Primary Cilia in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Junguee Lee, Dong Hyun Oh, Ki Cheol Park, Ji Eun Choi, Jong Beom Kwon, Jongho Lee, Kuhn Park, and Hae Joung Sul

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(3): 224-233 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2307
    Abstract

    Abstract : Primary cilia are solitary, non-motile, axonemal microtubule-based antenna-like organelles that project from the plasma membrane of most mammalian cells and are implicated in transducing hedgehog signals during development. It was recently proposed that aberrant SHH signaling may be implicated in the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the distribution and role of primary cilia in IPF remains unclear. Here, we clearly observed the primary cilia in alveolar epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells of human normal lung tissue. Then, we investigated the distribution of primary cilia in human IPF tissue samples using immunofluorescence. Tissues from six IPF cases showed an increase in the number of primary cilia in alveolar cells and fibroblasts. In addition, we observed an increase in ciliogenesis related genes such as IFT20 and IFT88 in IPF. Since major components of the SHH signaling pathway are known to be localized in primary cilia, we quantified the mRNA expression of the SHH signaling components using qRT-PCR in both IPF and control lung. mRNA levels of SHH, the coreceptor SMO, and the transcription factors GLI1 and GLI2 were upregulated in IPF compared with control. Furthermore, the nuclear localization of GLI1 was observed mainly in alveolar epithelia and fibroblasts. In addition, we showed that defective KIF3A-mediated ciliary loss in human type II alveolar epithelial cell lines leads to disruption of SHH signaling. These results indicate that a significant increase in the number of primary cilia in IPF contributes to the upregulation of SHH signals.

  • ArticleMarch 31, 2018

    0 43 1031
    Abstract

    Abstract : In recent years, the interest towards the relationship between incretins and bone has been increasing. Previous studies have suggested that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its receptor agonists exert beneficial anabolic influence on skeletal metabolism, such as promoting proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts via entero-osseous-axis. However, little is known regarding the effects of GLP-1 on osteoblast apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms involved. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, on apoptosis of murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. We confirmed the presence of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in MC3T3-E1 cells. Our data demonstrated that liraglutide inhibited the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, as detected by Annexin V/PI and Hoechst 33258 staining and ELISA assays. Moreover, liraglutide upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax expression and caspase-3 activity at intermediate concentration (100 nM) for maximum effect. Further study suggested that liraglutide stimulated the phosphorylation of AKT and enhanced cAMP level, along with decreased phosphorylation of GSK3β, increased β-catenin phosphorylation at Ser675 site and upregulated nuclear β-catenin content and transcriptional activity. Pretreatment of cells with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, PKA inhibitor H89, and siRNAs GLP-1R, β-catenin abrogated the liraglutide-induced activation of cAMP, AKT, β-catenin, respectively. In conclusion, these findings illustrate that activation of GLP-1 receptor by liraglutide inhibits the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation through cAMP/PKA/β-catenin and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling pathways.

  • ArticleMarch 31, 2018

    0 47 820

    Astragaloside IV Prevents Obesity-Associated Hypertension by Improving Pro-Inflammatory Reaction and Leptin Resistance

    Ping Jiang, Dufang Ma, Xue Wang, Yongcheng Wang, Yuxin Bi, Jinlong Yang, Xuebing Wang, and Xiao Li

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(3): 244-255 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.2156
    Abstract

    Abstract : Low-grade pro-inflammatory state and leptin resistance are important underlying mechanisms that contribute to obesity-associated hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that Astragaloside IV (As IV), known to counteract obesity and hypertension, could prevent obesity-associated hypertension by inhibiting pro-inflammatory reaction and leptin resistance. High-fat diet (HFD) induced obese rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the HFD control group (HF con group), As IV group, and the As IV + α-bungaratoxin (α-BGT) group (As IV+α-BGT group). As IV (20 mg·Kg?1·d?1) was administrated to rats for 6 weeks via daily oral gavage. Body weight and blood pressure were continuously measured, and NE levels in the plasma and renal cortex was evaluated to reflect the sympathetic activity. The expressions of leptin receptor (LepRb) mRNA, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (p-STAT3), phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p-PI3K), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) mRNA, and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) mRNA, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA and neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA were measured by Western blot or qRT-PCR to evaluate the hypothalamic leptin sensitivity. Additionally, we measured the protein or mRNA levels of α7nAChR, inhibitor of nuclear factor κB kinase subunit β/ nuclear factor κB (IKKβ/NF-KB) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in hypothalamus and adipose tissue to reflect the anti-inflammatory effects of As IV through upregulating expression of α7nAChR. We found that As IV prevented body weight gain and adipose accumulation, and also improved metabolic disorders in HFD rats. Furthermore, As IV decreased BP and HR, as well as NE levels in blood and renal tissue. In the hypothalamus, As IV alleviated leptin resistance as evidenced by the increased p-STAT3, LepRb mRNA and POMC mRNA, and decreased p-PI3K, SOCS3 mRNA, and PTP1B mRNA. The effects of As IV on leptin sensitivity were related in part to the up-regulated α7nAchR and suppressed IKKβ/NF-KB signaling and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and adipose tissue, since co-administration of α7nAChR selective antagonist α-BGT could weaken the improved effect of As IV on central leptin resistance. Our study suggested that As IV could efficiently prevent obesity-associated hypertension through inhibiting inflammatory reaction and improving leptin resistance; furthermore, these effects of As IV was partly related to the increased α7nAchR expression.

Mol. Cells
Nov 30, 2021 Vol.44 No.11
COVER PICTURE
3D quantitative images of the vesicular structure and the nucleolus using label free optical diffraction tomography (Kim et al., pp. 851-860).

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