Heegwon Shin, Youngmi Kim, Meehyein Kim, and Younghoon LeeMol. Cells 2018; 41(12): 993-999 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0425
Abstract : One of the most interesting findings from genome-wide expression analysis is that a considerable amount of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) is present in the cell. Recent studies have identified diverse biological functions of ncRNAs, which are expressed in a much wider array of forms than proteins. Certain ncRNAs associated with diseases, in particular, have attracted research attention as novel therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers. BC200 RNA, a 200-nucleotide ncRNA originally identified as a neuron-specific transcript, is abnormally over-expressed in several types of cancer tissue. A number of recent studies have suggested mechanisms by which abnormal expression of BC200 RNA contributes to the development of cancer. In this article, we first provide a brief review of a recent progress in identifying functions of BC200 RNA in cancer cells, and then offer examples of other ncRNAs as new therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers for human cancer. Finally, we discuss future directions of studies on BC200 RNA for new cancer treatments.
Soyeon Lee, and Kyung-Tai MinMol. Cells 2018; 41(12): 1000-1007 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0438
Abstract : Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are essential organelles in eukaryotic cells, which play key roles in various biological pathways. Mitochondria are responsible for ATP production, maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis and regulation of apoptosis, while ER is involved in protein folding, lipid metabolism as well as Ca2+ homeostasis. These organelles have their own functions, but they also communicate via mitochondrial-associated ER membrane (MAM) to provide another level of regulations in energy production, lipid process, Ca2+ buffering, and apoptosis. Hence, defects in MAM alter cell survival and death. Here, we review components forming the molecular junctions of MAM and how MAM regulates cellular functions. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of impaired ER-mitochondrial communication in various neurodegenerative diseases.
Kyoung-Hee Lee, Jungsil Lee, Jisu Woo, Chang-Hoon Lee, and Chul-Gyu YooMol. Cells 2018; 41(12): 1008-1015 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0277
Abstract : IκB, a cytoplasmic inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), is reportedly degraded via the proteasome. However, we recently found that long-term incubation with proteasome inhibitors (PIs) such as PS-341 or MG132 induces IκBα degradation via an alternative pathway, lysosome, which results in NF-κB activation and confers resistance to PI-induced lung cancer cell death. To enhance the anti-cancer efficacy of PIs, elucidation of the regulatory mechanism of PI-induced IκBα degradation is necessary. Here, we demonstrated that PI upregulates nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) via both
Qing Ge, David William Green, Dong-Joon Lee, Hyun-Yi Kim, Zhengguo Piao, Jong-Min Lee, and Han-Sung JungMol. Cells 2018; 41(12): 1016-1023 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.1001
Abstract : Regenerative orthopedics needs significant devices to transplant human stem cells into damaged tissue and encourage automatic growth into replacements suitable for the human skeleton. Soft biomaterials have similarities in mechanical, structural and architectural properties to natural extracellular matrix (ECM), but often lack essential ECM molecules and signals. Here we engineer mineralized polysaccharide beads to transform MSCs into osteogenic cells and osteoid tissue for transplantation. Bone morphogenic proteins (BMP-2) and indispensable ECM proteins both directed differentiation inside alginate beads. Laminin and collagen IV basement membrane matrix proteins fixed and organized MSCs onto the alginate matrix, and BMP-2 drove differentiation, osteoid tissue self-assembly, and small-scale mineralization. Augmentation of alginate is necessary, and we showed that a few rationally selected small proteins from the basement membrane (BM) compartment of the ECM were sufficient to upregulate cell expression of Runx-2 and osteocalcin for osteoid formation, resulting in Alizarin red-positive mineral nodules. More significantly, nested BMP-2 and BM beads added to a non-union skull defect, self-generated osteoid expressing osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) in a chain along the defect, at only four weeks, establishing a framework for complete regeneration expected in 6 and 12 weeks. Alginate beads are beneficial surgical devices for transplanting therapeutic cells in programmed (by the ECM components and alginate-chitosan properties) reaction environments ideal for promoting bone tissue.
Hong Thuan Tran, Eunjoo Cho, Seongsu Jeong, Eui Beom Jeong, Hae Sang Lee, Seon Yong Jeong, Jin Soon Hwang, and Eun Young KimMol. Cells 2018; 41(12): 1024-1032 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0367
Abstract : The central mechanisms coordinating growth and sexual maturation are well conserved across invertebrates and vertebrates. Although mutations in the gene encoding makorin RING finger protein 3 (
Gyuree Kim, Sejeong Jang, Eun Kyung Yoon, Shin Ae Lee, Souvik Dhar, Jinkwon Kim, Myeong Min Lee, and Jun LimMol. Cells 2018; 41(12): 1033-1044 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0363
Abstract : As sessile organisms, plants have evolved to adjust their growth and development to environmental changes. It has been well documented that the crosstalk between different plant hormones plays important roles in the coordination of growth and development of the plant. Here, we describe a novel recessive mutant,
Thao Dang, Soo Hwa Jang, Sung Hoon Back, Jeong Woo Park, and In-Seob HanMol. Cells 2018; 41(12): 1045-1051 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0129
Abstract : The developmentally regulated GTP binding protein 2 (DRG2) is involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that DRG2 regulates microtubule dynamics in HeLa cells. Analysis of live imaging of the plus-ends of microtubules with EB1-EGFP showed that DRG2 deficiency (shDRG2) significantly reduced the growth rate of HeLa cells. Depletion of DRG2 increased ‘slow and long-lived’ subpopulations, but decreased ‘fast and short-lived’ subpopulations of microtubules. Microtubule polymerization inhibitor exhibited a reduced response in shDRG2 cells. Using immunoprecipitation, we show that DRG2 interacts with tau, which regulates microtubule polymerization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that DRG2 may aid in affecting microtubule dynamics in HeLa cells.
Mohammad A. Alfhili, Dong Suk Yoon, Taki A. Faten, Jocelyn A. Francis, Dong Seok Cha, Baohong Zhang, Xiaoping Pan, and Myon-Hee LeeMol. Cells 2018; 41(12): 1052-1060 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0378
Abstract : Triclosan (TCS) is a phenolic antimicrobial chemical used in consumer products and medical devices. Evidence from
Zobia Umair, Shiv Kumar, Daniel H. Kim, Khezina Rafiq, Vijay Kumar, SungChan Kim, Jae-Bong Park, Jae-Yong Lee, Unjoo Lee, and Jaebong KimMol. Cells 2018; 41(12): 1061-1071 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0341
Abstract : From
Hyun-young Shin, and Kyoung Hee NamMol. Cells 2018; 41(12): 1072-1080 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0259
Abstract : A plant-specific B3 domain and AP2 domain-containing transcription factor, RAV1 acts as a negative regulator of growth in many plant species and its transcription was downregulated by BR and ABA. In this study, we found that