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  • MinireviewDecember 31, 2018

    0 55 682

    BC200 RNA: An Emerging Therapeutic Target and Diagnostic Marker for Human Cancer

    Heegwon Shin, Youngmi Kim, Meehyein Kim, and Younghoon Lee

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(12): 993-999 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0425
    Abstract

    Abstract : One of the most interesting findings from genome-wide expression analysis is that a considerable amount of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) is present in the cell. Recent studies have identified diverse biological functions of ncRNAs, which are expressed in a much wider array of forms than proteins. Certain ncRNAs associated with diseases, in particular, have attracted research attention as novel therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers. BC200 RNA, a 200-nucleotide ncRNA originally identified as a neuron-specific transcript, is abnormally over-expressed in several types of cancer tissue. A number of recent studies have suggested mechanisms by which abnormal expression of BC200 RNA contributes to the development of cancer. In this article, we first provide a brief review of a recent progress in identifying functions of BC200 RNA in cancer cells, and then offer examples of other ncRNAs as new therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers for human cancer. Finally, we discuss future directions of studies on BC200 RNA for new cancer treatments.

  • MinireviewDecember 31, 2018

    0 97 2100
    Abstract

    Abstract : Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are essential organelles in eukaryotic cells, which play key roles in various biological pathways. Mitochondria are responsible for ATP production, maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis and regulation of apoptosis, while ER is involved in protein folding, lipid metabolism as well as Ca2+ homeostasis. These organelles have their own functions, but they also communicate via mitochondrial-associated ER membrane (MAM) to provide another level of regulations in energy production, lipid process, Ca2+ buffering, and apoptosis. Hence, defects in MAM alter cell survival and death. Here, we review components forming the molecular junctions of MAM and how MAM regulates cellular functions. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of impaired ER-mitochondrial communication in various neurodegenerative diseases.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2018

    0 35 460
    Abstract

    Abstract : IκB, a cytoplasmic inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), is reportedly degraded via the proteasome. However, we recently found that long-term incubation with proteasome inhibitors (PIs) such as PS-341 or MG132 induces IκBα degradation via an alternative pathway, lysosome, which results in NF-κB activation and confers resistance to PI-induced lung cancer cell death. To enhance the anti-cancer efficacy of PIs, elucidation of the regulatory mechanism of PI-induced IκBα degradation is necessary. Here, we demonstrated that PI upregulates nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) via both de novo protein synthesis and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) degradation, which is responsible for IκBα degradation via macroautophagy activation. PIs increased the protein level of light chain 3B (LC3B, macroautophagy marker), but not lysosome-associated membrane protein 2a (Lamp2a, the receptor for chaperone-mediated autophagy) in NCI-H157 and A549 lung cancer cells. Pretreatment with macroautophagy inhibitor or knock-down of LC3B blocked PI-induced IκBα degradation. PIs up-regulated Nrf2 by increasing its transcription and mediating degradation of KEAP1 (cytoplasmic inhibitor of Nrf2). Overexpression of dominant-negative Nrf2, which lacks an N-terminal transactivating domain, or knock-down of Nrf2 suppressed PI-induced LC3B protein expression and subsequent IκBα degradation. Thus, blocking of the Nrf2 pathway enhanced PI-induced cell death. These findings suggest that Nrf2-driven induction of LC3B plays an essential role in PI-induced activation of the IκB/NF-κB pathway, which attenuates the anti-tumor efficacy of PIs.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2018

    0 34 334

    Mineralized Polysaccharide Transplantation Modules Supporting Human MSC Conversion into Osteogenic Cells and Osteoid Tissue in a Non-Union Defect

    Qing Ge, David William Green, Dong-Joon Lee, Hyun-Yi Kim, Zhengguo Piao, Jong-Min Lee, and Han-Sung Jung

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(12): 1016-1023 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.1001
    Abstract

    Abstract : Regenerative orthopedics needs significant devices to transplant human stem cells into damaged tissue and encourage automatic growth into replacements suitable for the human skeleton. Soft biomaterials have similarities in mechanical, structural and architectural properties to natural extracellular matrix (ECM), but often lack essential ECM molecules and signals. Here we engineer mineralized polysaccharide beads to transform MSCs into osteogenic cells and osteoid tissue for transplantation. Bone morphogenic proteins (BMP-2) and indispensable ECM proteins both directed differentiation inside alginate beads. Laminin and collagen IV basement membrane matrix proteins fixed and organized MSCs onto the alginate matrix, and BMP-2 drove differentiation, osteoid tissue self-assembly, and small-scale mineralization. Augmentation of alginate is necessary, and we showed that a few rationally selected small proteins from the basement membrane (BM) compartment of the ECM were sufficient to upregulate cell expression of Runx-2 and osteocalcin for osteoid formation, resulting in Alizarin red-positive mineral nodules. More significantly, nested BMP-2 and BM beads added to a non-union skull defect, self-generated osteoid expressing osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) in a chain along the defect, at only four weeks, establishing a framework for complete regeneration expected in 6 and 12 weeks. Alginate beads are beneficial surgical devices for transplanting therapeutic cells in programmed (by the ECM components and alginate-chitosan properties) reaction environments ideal for promoting bone tissue.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2018

    0 31 603

    Makorin 1 Regulates Developmental Timing in Drosophila

    Hong Thuan Tran, Eunjoo Cho, Seongsu Jeong, Eui Beom Jeong, Hae Sang Lee, Seon Yong Jeong, Jin Soon Hwang, and Eun Young Kim

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(12): 1024-1032 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0367
    Abstract

    Abstract : The central mechanisms coordinating growth and sexual maturation are well conserved across invertebrates and vertebrates. Although mutations in the gene encoding makorin RING finger protein 3 (mkrn3 ) are associated with central precocious puberty in humans, a causal relationship has not been elucidated. Here, we examined the role of mkrn1, a Drosophila ortholog of mammalian makorin genes, in the regulation of developmental timing. Loss of MKRN1 in mkrn1exS prolonged the 3rd instar stage and delayed the onset of pupariation, resulting in bigger size pupae. MKRN1 was expressed in the prothoracic gland, where the steroid hormone ecdysone is produced. Furthermore, mkrn1exS larvae exhibited reduced mRNA levels of phantom, which encodes ecdysone-synthesizing enzyme and E74, which is a downstream target of ecdysone. Collectively, these results indicate that MKRN1 fine-tunes developmental timing and sexual maturation by affecting ecdysone synthesis in Drosophila. Moreover, our study supports the notion that malfunction of makorin gene family member, mkrn3 dysregulates the timing of puberty in mammals.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2018

    0 34 443

    Involvement of Pyridoxine/Pyridoxamine 5′-Phosphate Oxidase (PDX3) in Ethylene-Induced Auxin Biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis Root

    Gyuree Kim, Sejeong Jang, Eun Kyung Yoon, Shin Ae Lee, Souvik Dhar, Jinkwon Kim, Myeong Min Lee, and Jun Lim

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(12): 1033-1044 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0363
    Abstract

    Abstract : As sessile organisms, plants have evolved to adjust their growth and development to environmental changes. It has been well documented that the crosstalk between different plant hormones plays important roles in the coordination of growth and development of the plant. Here, we describe a novel recessive mutant, mildly insensitive to ethylene (mine), which displayed insensitivity to the ethylene precursor, ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid), in the root under the dark-grown conditions. By contrast, mine roots exhibited a normal growth response to exogenous IAA (indole-3-acetic acid). Thus, it appears that the growth responses of mine to ACC and IAA resemble those of weak ethylene insensitive (wei) mutants. To understand the molecular events underlying the crosstalk between ethylene and auxin in the root, we identified the MINE locus and found that the MINE gene encodes the pyridoxine 5′-phosphate (PNP)/pyridoxamine 5′-phosphate (PMP) oxidase, PDX3. Our results revealed that MINE/PDX3 likely plays a role in the conversion of the auxin precursor tryptophan to indole-3-pyruvic acid in the auxin biosynthesis pathway, in which TAA1 (TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS 1) and its related genes (TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED 1 and 2; TAR1 and TAR2) are involved. Considering that TAA1 and TARs belong to a subgroup of PLP (pyridoxal-5′-phosphate)-dependent enzymes, we propose that PLP produced by MINE/PDX3 acts as a cofactor in TAA1/TAR-dependent auxin biosynthesis induced by ethylene, which in turn influences the crosstalk between ethylene and auxin in the Arabidopsis root.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2018

    0 43 329

    DRG2 Deficiency Causes Impaired Microtubule Dynamics in HeLa Cells

    Thao Dang, Soo Hwa Jang, Sung Hoon Back, Jeong Woo Park, and In-Seob Han

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(12): 1045-1051 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0129
    Abstract

    Abstract : The developmentally regulated GTP binding protein 2 (DRG2) is involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that DRG2 regulates microtubule dynamics in HeLa cells. Analysis of live imaging of the plus-ends of microtubules with EB1-EGFP showed that DRG2 deficiency (shDRG2) significantly reduced the growth rate of HeLa cells. Depletion of DRG2 increased ‘slow and long-lived’ subpopulations, but decreased ‘fast and short-lived’ subpopulations of microtubules. Microtubule polymerization inhibitor exhibited a reduced response in shDRG2 cells. Using immunoprecipitation, we show that DRG2 interacts with tau, which regulates microtubule polymerization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that DRG2 may aid in affecting microtubule dynamics in HeLa cells.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2018

    0 29 321

    Non-Ionic Surfactants Antagonize Toxicity of Potential Phenolic Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals, Including Triclosan in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Mohammad A. Alfhili, Dong Suk Yoon, Taki A. Faten, Jocelyn A. Francis, Dong Seok Cha, Baohong Zhang, Xiaoping Pan, and Myon-Hee Lee

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(12): 1052-1060 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0378
    Abstract

    Abstract : Triclosan (TCS) is a phenolic antimicrobial chemical used in consumer products and medical devices. Evidence from in vitro and in vivo animal studies has linked TCS to numerous health problems, including allergic, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative disease. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system, we here show that short-term TCS treatment (LC50: ~0.2 mM) significantly induced mortality in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, TCS-induced mortality was dramatically suppressed by co-treatment with non-ionic surfactants (NISs: e.g., Tween 20, Tween 80, NP-40, and Triton X-100), but not with anionic surfactants (e.g., sodium dodecyl sulfate). To identify the range of compounds susceptible to NIS inhibition, other structurally related chemical compounds were also examined. Of the compounds tested, only the toxicity of phenolic compounds (bisphenol A and benzyl 4-hydroxybenzoic acid) was significantly abrogated by NISs. Mechanistic analyses using TCS revealed that NISs appear to interfere with TCS-mediated mortality by micellar solubilization. Once internalized, the TCS-micelle complex is inefficiently exported in worms lacking PMP-3 (encoding an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter) transmembrane protein, resulting in overt toxicity. Since many EDCs and surfactants are extensively used in commercial products, findings from this study provide valuable insights to devise safer pharmaceutical and nutritional preparations.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2018

    0 54 340

    Ventx1.1 as a Direct Repressor of Early Neural Gene zic3 in Xenopus laevis

    Zobia Umair, Shiv Kumar, Daniel H. Kim, Khezina Rafiq, Vijay Kumar, SungChan Kim, Jae-Bong Park, Jae-Yong Lee, Unjoo Lee, and Jaebong Kim

    Mol. Cells 2018; 41(12): 1061-1071 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0341
    Abstract

    Abstract : From Xenopus embryo studies, the BMP4/Smad1-targeted gene circuit is a key signaling pathway for specifying the cell fate between the ectoderm and neuro-ectoderm as well as the ventral and dorsal mesoderm. In this context, several BMP4/Smad1 target transcriptional factors have been identified as repressors of the neuro-ectoderm. However, none of these direct target transcription factors in this pathway, including GATA1b, Msx1 and Ventx1.1 have yet been proven as direct repressors of early neuro-ectodermal gene expression. In order to demonstrate that Ventx1.1 is a direct repressor of neuro-ectoderm genes, a genome-wide Xenopus ChIP-Seq of Ventx1.1 was performed. In this study, we demonstrated that Ventx1.1 bound to the Ventx1.1 response cis-acting element 1 and 2 (VRE1 and VRE2) on the promoter for zic3, which is a key early neuro-ectoderm gene, and this Ventx1.1 binding led to repression of zic3 transcription. Site-directed mutagenesis of VRE1 and VRE2 within zic3 promoter completely abolished the repression caused by Ventx1.1. In addition, we found both the positive and negative regulation of zic3 promoter activity by FoxD5b and Xcad2, respectively, and that these occur through the VREs and via modulation of Ventx1.1 levels. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the BMP4/Smad1 target gene, Ventx1.1, is a direct repressor of neuro-ectodermal gene zic3 during early Xenopus embryogenesis.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2018

    0 44 653
    Abstract

    Abstract : A plant-specific B3 domain and AP2 domain-containing transcription factor, RAV1 acts as a negative regulator of growth in many plant species and its transcription was downregulated by BR and ABA. In this study, we found that RAV1-overexpressing transgenic plants showed abnormally developed ovules, resulting in reduced seed size, weight, and number in a silique. Interestingly, the endogenous expression of RAV1 fluctuated during seed development; it remained low during the early stage of seed development and sharply increased in the seed maturation stage. In plants, seed development is a complex process that requires coordinated growth of the embryo, endosperm, and maternal integuments. Among many genes that are associated with endosperm proliferation and embryo development, three genes consisting of SHB1, MINI3, and IKU2 form a small unit positively regulating this process, and their expression was regulated by BR and ABA. Using the floral stage-specific RNAs, we found that the expression of MINI3 and IKU2, the two downstream genes of the SHB1-MINI3-IKU2 cascade in the seed development pathway, were particularly reduced in the RAV1-overexpressing transgenic plants. We further determined that RAV1 directly binds to the promoter of MINI3 and IKU2, resulting in their repression. Direct treatment with brassinolide (BL) improved seed development of RAV1-overexpressing plants, but treatment with ABA severely worsened it. Overall, these results suggest that RAV1 is an additional negative player in the early stages of seed development, during which ABA and BR signaling are coordinated.

Mol. Cells
Nov 30, 2021 Vol.44 No.11
COVER PICTURE
3D quantitative images of the vesicular structure and the nucleolus using label free optical diffraction tomography (Kim et al., pp. 851-860).

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