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  • MinireviewMay 31, 2017

    23 693 1754

    The Expanding Significance of Inositol Polyphosphate Multikinase as a Signaling Hub

    Eunha Kim, Hyoungjoon Ahn, Min Gyu Kim, Haein Lee, and Seyun Kim

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(5): 315-321 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0066
    Abstract

    Abstract : The inositol polyphosphates are a group of multifunctional signaling metabolites whose synthesis is catalyzed by a family of inositol kinases that are evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans. Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) was first identified as a subunit of the arginine-responsive transcription complex in budding yeast. In addition to its role in the production of inositol tetrakis- and pentakisphosphates (IP4 and IP5), IPMK also exhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity. Through its PI3-kinase activity, IPMK activates Akt/PKB and its downstream signaling pathways. IPMK also regulates several protein targets non-catalytically via protein-protein interactions. These non-catalytic targets include cytosolic signaling factors and transcription factors in the nucleus. In this review, we highlight the many known functions of mammalian IPMK in controlling cellular signaling networks and discuss future challenges related to clarifying the unknown roles IPMK plays in physiology and disease.

  • ArticleMay 31, 2017

    12 443 992

    DDX53 Regulates Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties by Binding to SOX-2

    Youngmi Kim, Minjeong Yeon, and Dooil Jeoung

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(5): 322-330 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0001
    Abstract

    Abstract : This study investigated the role of cancer/testis antigen DDX53 in regulating cancer stem cell-like properties. DDX53 shows co-expression with CD133, a marker for cancer stem cells. DDX53 directly regulates the SOX-2 expression in anticancer drug-resistant Malme3MR cells. DDX53 and miR-200b were found to be involved in the regulation of tumor spheroid forming potential of Malme3M and Malme3MR cells. Furthermore, the self-renewal activity and the tumorigenic potential of Malme3MR-CD133 (+) cells were also regulated by DDX53. A miR-200b inhibitor induced the direct regulation of SOX-2 by DDX53 We therefore, conclude that DDX53 may serve as an immunotherapeutic target for regulating cancer stem-like properties of melanomas.

  • ArticleMay 31, 2017

    7 474 1167

    Involvement of a Gr2a-Expressing Drosophila Pharyngeal Gustatory Receptor Neuron in Regulation of Aversion to High-Salt Foods

    Haein Kim, Yong Taek Jeong, Min Sung Choi, Jaekyun Choi, Seok Jun Moon, and Jae Young Kwon

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(5): 331-338 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0028
    Abstract

    Abstract : Regulation of feeding is essential for animal survival. The pharyngeal sense organs can act as a second checkpoint of food quality, due to their position between external taste organs such as the labellum which initially assess food quality, and the digestive tract. Growing evidence provides support that the pharyngeal sensory neurons regulate feeding, but much is still unknown. We found that a pair of gustatory receptor neurons in the LSO, a Drosophila adult pharyngeal organ which expresses four gustatory receptors, is involved in feeding inhibition in response to high concentrations of sodium ions. RNAi experiments and mutant analysis showed that the gustatory receptor Gr2a is necessary for this process. This feeding preference determined by whether a food source is perceived as appetizing or not is influenced by nutritional conditions, such that when the animal is hungry, the need for energy dominates over how appealing the food source is. Our results provide experimental evidence that factors involved in feeding function in a context-dependent manner.

  • ArticleMay 31, 2017

    2 364 903
    Abstract

    Abstract : Retroviral and lentiviral vectors are mostly pseudotyped and often purified and concentrated via ultracentrifugation. In this study, we quantified and compared the stabilities of retroviral [murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based] and lentiviral [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-based] vectors pseudotyped with relatively mechanically stable envelope proteins, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoproteins (VSVGs), and the influenza virus WSN strain envelope proteins against ultracentrifugation. Lentiviral genomic and functional particles were more stable than the corresponding retroviral particles against ultracentrifugation when pseudotyped with VSVGs. However, both retroviral and lentiviral particles were unstable when pseudotyped with the influenza virus WSN strain envelope proteins. Therefore, the stabilities of pseudotyped retroviral and lentiviral vectors against ultracentrifugation process are a function of not only the type of envelope proteins, but also the type of viral internal core (MLV or HIV-1 core). In addition, the fraction of functional viral particles among genomic viral particles greatly varied at times during packaging, depending on the type of envelope proteins used for pseudotyping and the viral internal core.

  • ArticleMay 31, 2017

    1 299 908

    Methylation Levels of LINE-1 As a Useful Marker for Venous Invasion in Both FFPE and Frozen Tumor Tissues of Gastric Cancer

    Jimin Min, Boram Choi, Tae-Su Han, Hyuk-Joon Lee, Seong-Ho Kong, Yun-Suhk Suh, Tae-Han Kim, Hwi-Nyeong Choe, Woo Ho Kim, Keun Hur, and Han-Kwang Yang

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(5): 346-354 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0013
    Abstract

    Abstract : Long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) is a retrotransposon that contains a CpG island in its 5′-untranslated region. The CpG island of LINE-1 is often heavily methylated in normal somatic cells, which is associated with poor prognosis in various cancers. DNA methylation can differ between formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and frozen tissues. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the LINE-1 methylation status between the two tissue-storage conditions in gastric cancer (GC) clinical samples and to evaluate whether LINE-1 can be used as an independent prognostic marker for each tissue-storage type. We analyzed four CpG sites of LINE-1 and examined the methylation levels at these sites in 25 FFPE and 41 frozen GC tissues by quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing. The LINE-1 methylation status was significantly different between the FFPE and frozen GC tissues (p < 0.001). We further analyzed the clinicopathological features in the two groups separately. In the frozen GC tissues, LINE-1 was significantly hypomethylated in GC tissues compared to their corresponding normal gastric mucosa tissues (p < 0.001), and its methylation status was associated with gender, differentiation state, and lymphatic and venous invasion of GC. In the FFPE GC tissues, the methylation levels of LINE-1 differed according to tumor location and venous invasion of GC. In conclusion, LINE-1 can be used as a useful methylation marker for venous invasion in both FFPE and frozen tumor tissues of GC.

  • ArticleMay 31, 2017

    1 272 640
    Abstract

    Abstract : The β2 integrins are cell surface transmembrane proteins regulating leukocyte functions, such as adhesion and migration. Two members of β2 integrin, αMβ2 and αXβ2, share the leukocyte distribution profile and integrin αXβ2 is involved in antigen presentation in dendritic cells and transendothelial migration of monocytes and macrophages to atherosclerotic lesions. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a member of cell adhesion molecules, plays an important role in chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis. Although RAGE and αXβ2 play an important role in inflammatory response and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the nature of their interaction and structure involved in the binding remain poorly defined. In this study, using I-domain as a ligand binding motif of αXβ2, we characterize the binding nature and the interacting moieties of αX I-domain and RAGE. Their binding requires divalent cations (Mg2+ and Mn2+) and shows an affinity on the sub-micro molar level: the dissociation constant of αX I-domains binding to RAGE being 0.49 μM. Furthermore, the αX I-domains recognize the V-domain, but not the C1 and C2-domains of RAGE. The acidic amino acid substitutions on the ligand binding site of αX I-domain significantly reduce the I-domain binding activity to soluble RAGE and the alanine substitutions of basic amino acids on the flat surface of the V-domain prevent the V-domain binding to αX I-domain. In conclusion, the main mechanism of αX I-domain binding to RAGE is a charge interaction, in which the acidic moieties of αX I-domains, including E244, and D249, recognize the basic residues on the RAGE V-domain encompassing K39, K43, K44, R104, and K107.

  • ArticleMay 31, 2017

    1 385 904
    Abstract

    Abstract : Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC), a malignant tumor of biliary origin, has a poor prognosis with limited treatment options. The KRAS oncogene is the most commonly mutated gene in ECC and one of the factors that predicts a poor prognosis and low survival rate. L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is expressed in ECC cells and acts as an independent poor prognostic factor in predicting patient survival. In this study we investigate the functional significance of L1CAM in ECC cells with activating KRAS mutation. We selected an ECC cell line, EGI-1, with activating KRAS mutation, and then confirmed its expression of L1CAM by RT-PCR, western blot analysis, and flow cytometry. The suppression of L1CAM expression (using a specific lentivirus-delivered shRNA) significantly decreased the migratory and invasive properties of EGI-1 cells, without altering their proliferation or survival. Analyses of signaling effectors in L1CAM-depleted and control EGI-1 cells indicated that L1CAM suppression decreased the levels of both phosphorylated MKK4 and total MKK4, together with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Further, exposure to a JNK inhibitor (SP600125) decreased migration and invasion of EGI-1 cells. These results suggest that L1CAM promotes cellular migration and invasion via the induction of MKK4 expression, leading to JNK activation. Our study is the first to demonstrate a functional role for L1CAM in ECC carrying the activating KRAS mutation. Given that KRAS is the most commonly mutated oncogene in ECC, L1CAM may serve as an attractive therapeutic target for ECC cells with activating KRAS mutation.

  • ArticleMay 31, 2017

    4 325 812
    Abstract

    Abstract : Despite the importance of the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-RANK signaling mechanisms on osteoclast differentiation, little has been studied on how RANK expression is regulated or what regulates its expression during osteoclastogenesis. We show here that insulin signaling increases RANK expression, thus enhancing osteoclast differentiation by RANKL. Insulin stimulation induced RANK gene expression in time- and dose-dependent manners and insulin receptor shRNA completely abolished RANK expression induced by insulin in bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage cells (BMMs). Moreover, the addition of insulin in the presence of RANKL promoted RANK expression. The ability of insulin to regulate RANK expression depends on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) since only PD98059, an ERK1/2 inhibitor, specifically inhibited its expression by insulin. However, the RANK expression by RANKL was blocked by all three mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases inhibitors. The activation of RANK increased differentiation of BMMs into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) osteoclasts as well as the expression of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and d2 isoform of vacuolar (H+) ATPase (v-ATPase) Vo domain (Atp6v0d2), genes critical for osteoclastic cell-cell fusion. Collectively, these results suggest that insulin induces RANK expression via ERK1/2, which contributes to the enhancement of osteoclast differentiation.

  • ErratumMay 31, 2017

    0 139 531

    Erratum to: Transforming Growth Factor b1/Smad4 Signaling Affects Osteoclast Differentiation via Regulation of miR-155 Expression

    Hongying Zhao, Jun Zhang, Haiyu Shao, Jianwen Liu, Mengran Jin, Jinping Chen, and Yazeng Huang

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(5): 378-378 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.1303
Mol. Cells
Nov 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.11
COVER PICTURE
Naive (cyan) and axotomized (magenta) retinal ganglion cell axons in Xenopus tropicalis (Choi et al., pp. 846-854).

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