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  • MinireviewApril 30, 2017

    87 770 2912
    Abstract

    Abstract : Eukaryotic cilia are organelles that project from the surface of cells to fulfill motility and sensory functions. In vertebrates, the functions of both motile and immotile cilia are critical for embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Importantly, a multitude of human diseases is caused by abnormal cilia biogenesis and functions which rely on the compartmentalization of the cilium and the maintenance of its protein composition. The transition zone (TZ) is a specialized ciliary domain present at the base of the cilium and is part of a gate that controls protein entry and exit from this organelle. The relevance of the TZ is highlighted by the fact that several of its components are coded by ciliopathy genes. Here we review recent developments in the study of TZ proteomes, the mapping of individual components to the TZ structure and the establishment of the TZ as a lipid gate.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2017

    21 283 1834

    MicroRNA-296-5p Promotes Invasiveness through Downregulation of Nerve Growth Factor Receptor and Caspase-8

    Hong Lee, Chang Hoon Shin, Hye Ree Kim, Kyung Hee Choi, and Hyeon Ho Kim

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(4): 254-261 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.2270
    Abstract

    Abstract : Glioblastomas (GBM) are very difficult to treat and their aggressiveness is one of the main reasons for this as well as for the frequent recurrences. MicroRNAs post-transcriptionally regulate their target genes through interaction between their seed sequence and 3′UTR of the target mRNAs. We previously reported that miR-296-3p is regulated by neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) and enhances the invasiveness of GBM cells via SOCS2/STAT3. In this study, we investigated whether miR-296-5p, which originates from the same precursor miRNA as miR-296-3p, can increase the invasiveness of GBM cells. It was observed that miR-296-5p potentiated the invasion of various GBM cells including LN229, T98G, and U87MG. Through bioinformatics approaches, two genes were identified as miR-296-5p targets: caspase-8 (CASP8) and nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR). From results obtained from Ago2 immunoprecipitation and luciferase assays, we found that miR-296-5p downregulates CASP8 and NGFR through direct interaction between seed sequence of the miRNA and 3′UTR of the target mRNA. Knockdown of CASP8 or NGFR also increased the invasive ability of GBM cells, indicating that CASP8 and NGFR are involved in potentiation of invasiveness by miR-296-5p. Consistent with our findings, CASP8 was downregulated in brain metastatic lung cancer cells, which have a high level of miR-296-5p, compared to parental cells, suggesting that miR-296-5p may be generally associated with the acquisition of invasiveness. Collectively, our results implicate miR-296-5p as a potential cause of invasiveness in cancer and suggest it as a promising therapeutic target for GBM.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2017

    2 303 881
    Abstract

    Abstract : MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded, small RNAs (21?23 nucleotides) that function in gene silencing and translational inhibition via the RNA interference mechanism. Most miRNAs originate from host genomic regions, such as intergenic regions, introns, exons, and transposable elements (TEs). Here, we focused on the palindromic structure of medium reiteration frequencies (MERs), which are similar to precursor miRNAs. Five MER consensus sequences (MER5A1, MER53, MER81, MER91C, and MER117) were matched with paralogous transcripts predicted to be precursor miRNAs in the horse genome (equCab2) and located in either intergenic regions or introns. The MER5A1, MER53, and MER91C sequences obtained from RepeatMasker were matched with the eca-miR-544b, eca-miR-1302, and eca-miR-652 precursor sequences derived from Ensembl transcript database, respectively. Each precursor form was anticipated to yield two mature forms, and we confirmed miRNA expression in six different tissues (cerebrum, cerebellum, lung, spleen, adrenal gland, and duodenum) of one thorough-bred horse. MER5A1-derived miRNAs generally showed significantly higher expression in the lung than in other tissues. MER91C-derived miRNA-5p also showed significantly higher expression in the duodenum than in other tissues (cerebellum, lung, spleen, and adrenal gland). The MER117-overlapped expressed sequence tag generated polycistronic miRNAs, which showed higher expression in the duodenum than other tissues. These data indicate that horse MER transposons encode miR-NAs that are expressed in several tissues and are thought to have biological functions.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2017

    4 372 1171

    Mind Bomb-Binding Partner RanBP9 Plays a Contributory Role in Retinal Development

    Kyeong-Won Yoo, Maivannan Thiruvarangan, Yun-Mi Jeong, Mi-Sun Lee, Sateesh Maddirevula, Myungchull Rhee, Young-Ki Bae, Hyung-Goo Kim, and Cheol-Hee Kim

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(4): 271-279 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.2308
    Abstract

    Abstract : Ran-binding protein family member, RanBP9 has been reported in various basic cellular mechanisms and neuropathological conditions including schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported that RanBP9 is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and retina; however, the role of RanBP9 in retinal development is largely unknown. Here, we present the novel and regulatory roles of RanBP9 in retinal development of a vertebrate animal model, zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos exhibited abundant expression of ranbp9 in developing brain tissues as well as in the developing retina. Yeast two-hybrid screening demonstrated the interaction of RanBP9 with Mind bomb, a component of Notch signaling involved in both neurogenesis and neural disease autism. The interaction is further substantiated by co-localization studies in cultured cells. Knockdown of ranbp9 resulted in retinal dysplasia with defective proliferation of retinal cells, downregulation of neuronal differentiation marker huC, elevation of neural proliferation marker her4, and alteration of cell cycle marker p57kip2. Expression of the M?ller glial cell marker glutamine synthase was also affected in knockdown morphants. Our results suggest that Mind bomb-binding partner RanBP9 plays a role during retinal cell development of zebrafish embryogenesis.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2017

    21 283 1612

    Neuroprotective Effects of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibition against ER Stress-Induced Toxicity

    Yu-Mi Jeon, Shinrye Lee, Seyeon Kim, Younghwi Kwon, Kiyoung Kim, Chang Geon Chung, Seongsoo Lee, Sung Bae Lee, and Hyung-Jun Kim

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(4): 280-290 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.2320
    Abstract

    Abstract : Several lines of evidence suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is known to regulate the ER stress signaling pathway, but its role in neuronal systems in terms of ER stress remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that rotenone-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma cell lines and mouse primary cortical neurons was ameliorated by PTP1B inhibition. Moreover, the increase in the level of ER stress markers (eIF2α phosphorylation and PERK phosphorylation) induced by rotenone treatment was obviously suppressed by concomitant PTP1B inhibition. However, the rotenone-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was not affected by PTP1B inhibition, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of the PTP1B inhibitor is not associated with ROS production. Moreover, we found that MG132-induced toxicity involving proteasome inhibition was also ameliorated by PTP1B inhibition in a human neuroblastoma cell line and mouse primary cortical neurons. Consistently, downregulation of the PTP1B homologue gene in Drosophila mitigated rotenone- and MG132-induced toxicity. Taken together, these findings indicate that PTP1B inhibition may represent a novel therapeutic approach for ER stress-mediated neurodegenerative diseases.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2017

    19 270 773
    Abstract

    Abstract : MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that regulate genes posttranscriptionally. Past studies have reported that miR-210 is up-regulated in many cancers including cervical cancer, and plays a pleiotropic role in carcinogenesis. However, its role in regulating response towards anti-cancer agents has not been fully elucidated. We have previously reported that the natural compound 1’S-1’-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) is able to induce cytotoxicity in various cancer cells including cervical cancer cells. Hence, this study aims to investigate the mechanistic role of miR-210 in regulating response towards ACA in cervical cancer cells. In the present study, we found that ACA down-regulated miR-210 expression in cervical cancer cells, and suppression of miR-210 expression enhanced sensitivity towards ACA by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed increased expression of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4), which was predicted as a target of miR-210 by target prediction programs, following treatment with ACA. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-210 binds to sequences in 3′UTR of SMAD4. Furthermore, decreased in SMAD4 protein expression was observed when miR-210 was overexpressed. Conversely, SMAD4 protein expression increased when miR-210 expression was suppressed. Lastly, we demonstrated that overexpression of SMAD4 augmented the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of ACA. Taken together, our results demonstrated that down-regulation of miR-210 conferred sensitivity towards ACA in cervical cancer cells by targeting SMAD4. These findings suggest that combination of miRNAs and natural compounds could provide new strategies in treating cervical cancer.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2017

    7 285 886

    Crystal Structure of the Regulatory Domain of AphB from Vibrio vulnificus, a Virulence Gene Regulator

    Nohra Park, Saemee Song, Garam Choi, Kyung Ku Jang, Inseong Jo, Sang Ho Choi, and Nam-Chul Ha

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(4): 299-306 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0015
    Abstract

    Abstract : The transcriptional activator AphB has been implicated in acid resistance and pathogenesis in the food borne pathogens Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae. To date, the full-length AphB crystal structure of V. cholerae has been determined and characterized by a tetrameric assembly of AphB consisting of a DNA binding domain and a regulatory domain (RD). Although acidic pH and low oxygen tension might be involved in the activation of AphB, it remains unknown which ligand or stimulus activates AphB at the molecular level. In this study, we determine the crystal structure of the AphB RD from V. vulnificus under aerobic conditions without modification at the conserved cysteine residue of the RD, even in the presence of the oxidizing agent cumene hydroperoxide. A cysteine to serine amino acid residue mutant RD protein further confirmed that the cysteine residue is not involved in sensing oxidative stress in vitro. Interestingly, an unidentified small molecule was observed in the inter-subdomain cavity in the RD when the crystal was incubated with cumene hydroperoxide molecules, suggesting a new ligand-binding site. In addition, we confirmed the role of AphB in acid tolerance by observing an aphB-dependent increase in cadC transcript level when V. vulnificus was exposed to acidic pH. Our study contributes to the understanding of the AphB molecular mechanism in the process of recognizing the host environment.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2017

    13 286 803
    Abstract

    Abstract : Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to extend lifespan and prevent cellular senescence in various species ranging from yeast to humans. Many effects of CR may contribute to extend lifespan. Specifically, CR prevents oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS) by enhancing mitochondrial function. In this study, we characterized 33 single electron transport chain (ETC) gene-deletion strains to identify CR-induced chronological lifespan (CLS) extension mechanisms. Interestingly, defects in 17 of these 33 ETC gene-deleted strains showed loss of both respiratory function and CR-induced CLS extension. On the contrary, the other 16 respiration-capable mutants showed increased CLS upon CR along with increased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, with decreased mitochondrial superoxide generation. We measured the same parameters in the 17 non-respiratory mutants upon CR. CR simultaneously increased MMP and mitochondrial superoxide generation without altering intracellular ATP levels. In conclusion, respiration is essential for CLS extension by CR and is important for balancing MMP, ROS, and ATP levels.

  • ErratumApril 30, 2017

    0 132 570

    Erratum to: Genes Frequently Coexpressed with Hoxc8 Provide Insight into the Discovery of Target Genes

    Kalyani Ruthala, Ji-Yeon Lee, Hyehyun Min, Heejei Yoon, and Myoung Hee Kim

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(4): 314-314 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.1311
Mol. Cells
Aug 31, 2022 Vol.45 No.8
COVER PICTURE
Cryo-EM structure of human porphyrin transporter ABCB6 (main figure) shows that binding of hemin (inset, magenta) in concert with two glutathione molecules (cyan) primes ABCB6 for high ATP turnover (Kim et al., pp. 575-587).

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