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  • MinireviewDecember 31, 2017

    0 291 1371
    Abstract

    Abstract : Nuclear bodies are subnuclear, spheroidal, and membraneless compartments that concentrate specific proteins and/or RNAs. They serve as sites of biogenesis, storage, and sequestration of specific RNAs, proteins, or ribonucleoprotein complexes. Recent studies reveal that a subset of nuclear bodies in various eukaryotic organisms is constructed using architectural long noncoding RNAs (arcRNAs). Here, we describe the unifying mechanistic principles of the construction and function of these bodies, especially focusing on liquid-liquid phase separation induced by architectural molecules that form multiple weakly adhesive interactions. We also discuss three possible advantages of using arcRNAs rather than architectural proteins to build the bodies: position-specificity, rapidity, and economy in sequestering nucleic acid-binding proteins. Moreover, we introduce two recently devised methods to discover novel arcRNA-constructed bodies; one that focuses on the RNase-sensitivity of these bodies, and another that focuses on “semi-extractability” of arcRNAs.

  • MinireviewDecember 31, 2017

    0 458 2997

    Emerging Paradigm of Crosstalk between Autophagy and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    Taewook Nam, Jong Hyun Han, Sushil Devkota, and Han-Woong Lee

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(12): 897-905 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0226
    Abstract

    Abstract : Cellular protein homeostasis is maintained by two major degradation pathways, namely the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy. Until recently, the UPS and autophagy were considered to be largely independent systems targeting proteins for degradation in the proteasome and lysosome, respectively. However, the identification of crucial roles of molecular players such as ubiquitin and p62 in both of these pathways as well as the observation that blocking the UPS affects autophagy flux and vice versa has generated interest in studying crosstalk between these pathways. Here, we critically review the current understanding of how the UPS and autophagy execute coordinated protein degradation at the molecular level, and shed light on our recent findings indicating an important role of an autophagy-associated transmembrane protein EI24 as a bridging molecule between the UPS and autophagy that functions by regulating the degradation of several E3 ligases with Really Interesting New Gene (RING)-domains.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2017

    0 312 959

    CTRP9 Regulates Growth, Differentiation, and Apoptosis in Human Keratinocytes through TGFβ1-p38-Dependent Pathway

    Tae Woo Jung, Hyung Sub Park, Geum Hee Choi, Daehwan Kim, and Taeseung Lee

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(12): 906-915 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0097
    Abstract

    Abstract : Impairment of wound healing is a common problem in individuals with diabetes. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine, has many beneficial effects on metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. C1q/TNF-Related Protein 9 (CTRP9), the closest paralog of adiponectin, has been reported to have beneficial effects on wound healing. In the current study, we demonstrate that CTRP9 regulates growth, differentiation, and apoptosis of HaCaT human keratinocytes. We found that CTRP9 augmented expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) by transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) binding activity and phosphorylation of p38 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated suppression of TGFβ1 reversed the increase in p38 phosphorylation induced by CTRP9. siRNA-mediated suppression of TGFβ1 or p38 significantly abrogated the effects of CTRP9 on cell proliferation and differentiation while inducing apoptosis, implying that CTRP9 stimulates wound recovery through a TGFβ1-dependent pathway in keratinocytes. Furthermore, intravenous injection of CTRP9 via tail vein suppressed mRNA expression of Ki67 and involucrin whereas it augmented TGFβ1 mRNA expression and caspase 3 activity in skin of type 1 diabetes animal models. In conclusion, our results suggest that CTRP9 has suppressive effects on hyperkeratosis, providing a potentially effective therapeutic strategy for diabetic wounds.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2017

    0 255 799

    MicroRNA-206 Protects against Myocardial Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats by Targeting Gadd45β

    Changlin Zhai, Qang Qian, Guanmin Tang, Bingjiang Han, Huilin Hu, Dong Yin, Haihua Pan, and Song Zhang

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(12): 916-924 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0164
    Abstract

    Abstract : MicroRNAs are widely involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases through regulating gene expression via translational inhibition or degradation of their target mRNAs. Recent studies have indicated a critical role of microRNA-206 in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the function of miR-206 in myocardial I/R injury is currently unclear. The present study was aimed to identify the specific role of miR-206 in myocardial I/R injury and explore the underlying molecular mechanism. Our results revealed that the expression level of miR-206 was significantly decreased both in rat I/R group and H9c2 cells subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) compared with the corresponding control. Overexpression of miR-206 observably decreased infarct size and inhibited the cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by I/R injury. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis, luciferase activity and western blot assay proved that Gadd45β (growth arrest DNA damage-inducible gene 45β) was a direct target gene of miR-206. In addition, the expression of pro-apoptotic-related genes, such as p53, Bax and cleaved caspase3, was decreased in association with the down-regulation of Gadd45β. In summary, this study demonstrates that miR-206 could protect against myocardial I/R injury by targeting Gadd45β.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2017

    0 237 601
    Abstract

    Abstract : The Cdc6 protein is essential for the initiation of chromosomal replication and functions as a licensing factor to maintain chromosome integrity. During the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, Cdc6 has been found to inhibit the recruitment of pericentriolar material (PCM) proteins to the centrosome and to suppress centrosome over-duplication. In this report, we analyzed the correlation between these two functions of Cdc6 at the centrosome. Cdc6 depletion increased the population of cells showing centrosome over-duplication and premature centrosome separation; Cdc6 expression reversed these changes. Deletion and fusion experiments revealed that the 18 amino acid residues (197?214) of Cdc6, which were fused to the Cdc6-centrosomal localization signal, suppressed centrosome over-duplication and premature centrosome separation. Cdc6 mutant proteins that showed defective ATP binding or hydrolysis did not exhibit a significant difference in suppressing centrosome over-duplication, compared to the wild type protein. In contrast to the Cdc6-mediated inhibition of PCM protein recruitment to the centrosome, the independence of Cdc6 on its ATPase activity for suppressing centrosome over-duplication, along with the difference between the Cdc6 protein regions participating in the two functions, suggested that Cdc6 controls centrosome duplication in a manner independent of its recruitment of PCM proteins to the centrosome.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2017

    0 250 605

    Inhibition of Autolysis by Lipase LipA in Streptococcus pneumoniae Sepsis

    Gyu-Lee Kim, Truc Thanh Luong, Sang-Sang Park, Seungyeop Lee, Jung Ah Ha, Cuong Thach Nguyen, Ji Hye Ahn, Ki-Tae Park, Man-Jeong Paik, Suhkneung-Pyo, David E. Briles, and Dong-Kwon Rhee

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(12): 935-944 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0201
    Abstract

    Abstract : More than 50% of sepsis cases are associated with pneumonia. Sepsis is caused by infiltration of bacteria into the blood via inflammation, which is triggered by the release of cell wall components following lysis. However, the regulatory mechanism of lysis during infection is not well defined. Mice were infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type (WT) and lipase mutant (ΔlipA) intranasally (pneumonia model) or intraperitoneally (sepsis model), and survival rate and pneumococcal colonization were determined. LipA and autolysin (LytA) levels were determined by qPCR and western blotting. S. pneumoniae Spd_1447 in the D39 (type 2) strain was identified as a lipase (LipA). In the sepsis model, but not in the pneumonia model, mice infected with the ΔlipA displayed higher mortality rates than did the D39 WT-infected mice. Treatment of pneumococci with serum induced LipA expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. In the presence of serum, the ΔlipA displayed faster lysis rates and higher LytA expression than the WT, both in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that a pneumococcal lipase (LipA) represses autolysis via inhibition of LytA in a sepsis model.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2017

    0 323 776

    Rnf152 Is Essential for NeuroD Expression and Delta-Notch Signaling in the Zebrafish Embryos

    Ajeet Kumar, Tae-Lin Huh, Joonho Choe, and Myungchull Rhee

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(12): 945-953 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0216
    Abstract

    Abstract : We report the biological functions of a zebrafish homologue of RING-finger protein 152 (rnf152) during embryogenesis. rnf152 was initially identified as a brain-enriched E3 ligase involved in early embryogenesis of zebrafish. Expression of rnf152 was ubiquitous in the brain at 24 hpf but restricted to the eyes, midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB), and rhombomeres at 48 hpf. Knockdown of rnf152 in zebrafish embryos caused defects in the eyes, MHB, and rhombomeres (r1?7) at 24 hpf. These defects in rnf152-deficient embryos were analyzed by whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) using neuroD, deltaD, notch1a, and notch3 probes. NeuroD expression was abolished in the marginal zone, outer nuclear layer (ONL), inner nuclear layer (INL), and ganglion cell layer (GCL) of the eyes at 27 hpf. Furthermore, deltaD and notch1a expression was remarkably reduced in the ONL, INL, subpallium, tectum, cerebellum, and rhombomeres (r1?7) at 24 hpf, whereas notch3 expression was reduced in the tectum, cerebellum, and rhombomeres at 24 hpf. Finally, we confirmed that expression of Notch target genes, her4 and ascl1a, also decreased significantly in these areas at 24 hpf. Thus, we propose that Rnf152 is essential for development of the eyes, midbrain and hindbrain, and that Delta-Notch signaling is involved.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2017

    0 208 1069

    Odorant Receptors Containing Conserved Amino Acid Sequences in Transmembrane Domain 7 Display Distinct Expression Patterns in Mammalian Tissues

    Sang Eun Ryu, Tammy Shim, Ju-Yeon Yi, So Yeun Kim, Sun Hwa Park, Sung Won Kim, Gabriele V. Ronnett, and Cheil Moon

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(12): 954-965 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0223
    Abstract

    Abstract : Mammalian genomes are well established, and highly conserved regions within odorant receptors that are unique from other G-protein coupled receptors have been identified. Numerous functional studies have focused on specific conserved amino acids motifs; however, not all conserved motifs have been sufficiently characterized. Here, we identified a highly conserved 18 amino acid sequence motif within transmembrane domain seven (CAS-TM7) which was identified by aligning odorant receptor sequences. Next, we investigated the expression pattern and distribution of this conserved amino acid motif among a broad range of odorant receptors. To examine the localization of odorant receptor proteins, we used a sequence-specific peptide antibody against CAS-TM7 which is specific to odorant receptors across species. The specificity of this peptide antibody in recognizing odorant receptors has been confirmed in a heterologous in vitro system and a rat-based in vivo system. The CAS-TM7 odorant receptors localized with distinct patterns at each region of the olfactory epithelium; septum, endoturbinate and ectoturbinate. To our great interests, we found that the CAS-TM7 odorant receptors are primarily localized to the dorsal region of the olfactory bulb, coinciding with olfactory epithelium-based patterns. Also, these odorant receptors were ectopically expressed in the various non-olfactory tissues in an evolutionary constrained manner between human and rats. This study has characterized the expression patterns of odorant receptors containing particular amino acid motif in transmembrane domain 7, and which led to an intriguing possibility that the conserved motif of odorant receptors can play critical roles in other physiological functions as well as olfaction.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2017

    0 295 1124

    Humic Acid Confers HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER 1-Mediated Salinity Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Laila Khaleda, Hee Jin Park, Dae-Jin Yun, Jong-Rok Jeon, Min Gab Kim, Joon-Yung Cha, and Woe-Yeon Kim

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(12): 966-975 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0229
    Abstract

    Abstract : Excessive salt disrupts intracellular ion homeostasis and inhibits plant growth, which poses a serious threat to global food security. Plants have adapted various strategies to survive in unfavorable saline soil conditions. Here, we show that humic acid (HA) is a good soil amendment that can be used to help overcome salinity stress because it markedly reduces the adverse effects of salinity on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. To identify the molecular mechanisms of HA-induced salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, we examined possible roles of a sodium influx transporter HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER 1 (HKT1). Salt-induced root growth inhibition in HKT1 overexpressor transgenic plants (HKT1-OX) was rescued by application of HA, but not in wild-type and other plants. Moreover, salt-induced degradation of HKT1 protein was blocked by HA treatment. In addition, the application of HA to HKT1-OX seedlings led to increased distribution of Na+ in roots up to the elongation zone and caused the reabsorption of Na+ by xylem and parenchyma cells. Both the influx of the secondary messenger calcium and its cytosolic release appear to function in the destabilization of HKT1 protein under salt stress. Taken together, these results suggest that HA could be applied to the field to enhance plant growth and salt stress tolerance via post-transcriptional control of the HKT1 transporter gene under saline conditions.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2017

    0 233 869

    Iron Homeostasis Controls Myeloid Blood Cell Differentiation in Drosophila

    Sunggyu Yoon, Bumsik Cho, Mingyu Shin, Ferdinand Koranteng, Nuri Cha, and Jiwon Shim

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(12): 976-985 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0287
    Abstract

    Abstract : Iron is an essential divalent ion for aerobic life. Life has evolved to maintain iron homeostasis for normal cellular and physiological functions and therefore imbalances in iron levels exert a wide range of consequences. Responses to iron dysregulation in blood development, however, remain elusive. Here, we found that iron homeostasis is critical for differentiation of Drosophila blood cells in the larval hematopoietic organ, called the lymph gland. Supplementation of an iron chelator, bathophenanthroline disulfate (BPS) results in an excessive differentiation of the crystal cell in the lymph gland. This phenotype is recapitulated by loss of Fer1HCH in the intestine, indicating that reduced levels of systemic iron enhances crystal cell differentiation. Detailed analysis of Fer1HCH-tagged-GFP revealed that Fer1HCH is also expressed in the hematopoietic systems. Lastly, blocking Fer1HCH expression in the mature blood cells showed marked increase in the blood differentiation of both crystal cells and plasmatocytes. Thus, our work suggests a relevance of systemic and local iron homeostasis in blood differentiation, prompting further investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying iron regulation and cell fate determination in the hematopoietic system.

Mol. Cells
Jun 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.6
COVER PICTURE
ERα is modified by UFM1 and this modification (ufmylation) plays a crucial role in promoting the stability of ERα and breast cancer development. However, when ERα is deufmylated and then ubiquitinated, it disappears by proteasome-mediated degradation (Yoo et al., pp. 425-434).

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