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  • MinireviewOctober 31, 2017

    14 605 2329

    Cross-talk between Phosphate Starvation and Other Environmental Stress Signaling Pathways in Plants

    Dongwon Baek, Hyun Jin Chun, Dae-Jin Yun, and Min Chul Kim

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(10): 697-705 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0192
    Abstract

    Abstract : The maintenance of inorganic phosphate (Pi) homeostasis is essential for plant growth and yield. Plants have evolved strategies to cope with Pi starvation at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational levels, which maximizes its availability. Many transcription factors, miRNAs, and transporters participate in the Pi starvation signaling pathway where their activities are modulated by sugar and phytohormone signaling. Environmental stresses significantly affect the uptake and utilization of nutrients by plants, but their effects on the Pi starvation response remain unclear. Recently, we reported that Pi starvation signaling is affected by abiotic stresses such as salt, abscisic acid, and drought. In this review, we identified transcription factors, such as MYB, WRKY, and zinc finger transcription factors with functions in Pi starvation and other environmental stress signaling. In silico analysis of the promoter regions of Pi starvation-responsive genes, including phosphate transporters, microRNAs, and phosphate starvation?induced genes, suggest that their expression may be regulated by other environmental stresses, such as hormones, drought, cold, heat, and pathogens as well as by Pi starvation. Thus, we suggest the possibility of cross-talk between Pi starvation signaling and other environmental stress signaling pathways.

  • MinireviewOctober 31, 2017

    100 1057 4556
    Abstract

    Abstract : Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that are derived from hematopoietic precursor cells and require macrophage-colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) for their survival, proliferation, differentiation, and activation. The binding of RANKL to its receptor RANK triggers osteoclast precursors to differentiate into osteoclasts. This process depends on RANKL-RANK signaling, which is temporally regulated by various adaptor proteins and kinases. Here we summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms that regulate RANK signaling during osteoclastogenesis. In the early stage, RANK signaling is mediated by recruiting adaptor molecules such as tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), which leads to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and the transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Activated NF-κB induces the nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), which is the key osteoclastogenesis regulator. In the intermediate stage of signaling, the co-stimulatory signal induces Ca2+ oscillation via activated phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2) together with c-Fos/AP-1, wherein Ca2+ signaling facilitates the robust production of NFATc1. In the late stage of osteoclastogenesis, NFATc1 translocates into the nucleus where it induces numerous osteoclast-specific target genes that are responsible for cell fusion and function.

  • ArticleOctober 31, 2017

    5 334 976

    Analysis of Genes with Alternatively Spliced Transcripts in the Leaf, Root, Panicle and Seed of Rice Using a Long Oligomer Microarray and RNA-Seq

    Songhwa Chae, Joung Sug Kim, Kyong Mi Jun, Sang-Bok Lee, Myung Soon Kim, Baek Hie Nahm, and Yeon-Ki Kim

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(10): 714-730 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.2297
    Abstract

    Abstract : Pre-mRNA splicing further increases protein diversity acquired through evolution. The underlying driving forces for this phenomenon are unknown, especially in terms of gene expression. A rice alternatively spliced transcript detection microarray (ASDM) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) were applied to differentiate the transcriptome of 4 representative organs of Oryza sativa L. cv. Ilmi: leaves, roots, 1-cm-stage panicles and young seeds at 21 days after pollination. Comparison of data obtained by microarray and RNA-Seq showed a bell-shaped distribution and a co-lineation for highly expressed genes. Transcripts were classified according to the degree of organ enrichment using a coefficient value (CV, the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean values): highly variable (CVI), variable (CVII), and constitutive (CVIII) groups. A higher index of the portion of loci with alternatively spliced transcripts in a group (IAST) value was observed for the constitutive group. Genes of the highly variable group showed the characteristics of the examined organs, and alternatively spliced transcripts tended to exhibit the same organ specificity or less organ preferences, with avoidance of ‘organ distinctness’. In addition, within a locus, a tendency of higher expression was found for transcripts with a longer coding sequence (CDS), and a spliced intron was the most commonly found type of alternative splicing for an extended CDS. Thus, pre-mRNA splicing might have evolved to retain maximum functionality in terms of organ preference and multiplicity.

  • ArticleOctober 31, 2017

    0 340 960

    Deciphering the Genes for Taste Receptors for Fructose in Drosophila

    Shun Uchizono, Taichi Q. Itoh, Haein Kim, Naoki Hamada, Jae Young Kwon, and Teiichi Tanimura

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(10): 731-736 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0016
    Abstract

    Abstract : Taste sensitivity to sugars plays an essential role in the initiation of feeding behavior. In Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies have identified several gustatory receptor (Gr) genes required for sensing sweet compounds. However, it is as yet undetermined how these GRs function as taste receptors tuned to a wide range of sugars. Among sugars, fructose has been suggested to be detected by a distinct receptor from other sugars. While GR43A has been reported to sense fructose in the brain, it is not expressed in labellar gustatory receptor neurons that show taste response to fructose. In contrast, the Gr64a-Gr64f gene cluster was recently shown to be associated with fructose sensitivity. Here we sought to decipher the genes required for fructose response among Gr64a-Gr64f genes. Unexpectedly, the qPCR analyses for these genes show that labellar expression levels of Gr64d and Gr64e are higher in fructose low-sensitivity flies than in high-sensitivity flies. Moreover, gustatory nerve responses to fructose in labellar sensilla are higher in Gr64d and Gr64f mutant lines than in mutant flies of the other Gr64a-Gr64f genes. These data suggest the possibility that deletion of GR64D or GR64F may indirectly induce enhanced fructose sensitivity in the labellum. Finally, we conclude that response to fructose cannot be explained by a single one of the Gr64a-Gr64f genes.

  • ArticleOctober 31, 2017

    0 322 982

    GSK-J4-Mediated Transcriptomic Alterations in Differentiating Embryoid Bodies

    Chanchal Mandal, Sun Hwa Kim, Sung Chul Kang, Jin Choul Chai, Young Seek Lee, Kyoung Hwa Jung, and Young Gyu Chai

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(10): 737-751 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0069
    Abstract

    Abstract : Histone-modifying enzymes are key players in the field of cellular differentiation. Here, we used GSK-J4 to profile important target genes that are responsible for neural differentiation. Embryoid bodies were treated with retinoic acid (10 μM) to induce neural differentiation in the presence or absence of GSK-J4. To profile GSKJ4-target genes, we performed RNA sequencing for both normal and demethylase-inhibited cells. A total of 47 and 58 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively, after GSK-J4 exposure at a log2-fold-change cut-off value of 1.2 (p-value < 0.05). Functional annotations of all of the differentially expressed genes revealed that a significant number of genes were associated with the suppression of cellular proliferation, cell cycle progression and induction of cell death. We also identified an enrichment of potent motifs in selected genes that were differentially expressed. Additionally, we listed upstream transcriptional regulators of all of the differentially expressed genes. Our data indicate that GSK-J4 affects cellular biology by inhibiting cellular proliferation through cell cycle suppression and induction of cell death. These findings will expand the current understanding of the biology of histone-modifying enzymes, thereby promoting further investigations to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  • ArticleOctober 31, 2017

    0 374 1373
    Abstract

    Abstract : A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR) is known to be the regulator of bone homeostasis, but its regulatory mechanisms in osteoclast formation are less well-defined. Here, we demonstrate the effect of A2BAR stimulation on osteoclast differentiation and activity by RANKL. A2BAR was expressed in bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage (BMM) and RANKL increased A2BAR expression during osteoclastogenesis. A2BAR stimulation with its specific agonist BAY 60-6583 was sufficient to inhibit the activation of ERK1/2, p38 MAP kinases and NF-κB by RANKL as well as it abrogated cell-cell fusion in the late stage of osteoclast differentiation. Stimulation of A2BAR suppressed the expression of osteoclast marker genes, such as c-Fos, TRAP, Cathepsin-K and NFATc1, induced by RANKL, and transcriptional activity of NFATc1 was also inhibited by stimulation of A2BAR. A2BAR stimulation caused a notable reduction in the expression of Atp6v0d2 and DC-STAMP related to cell-cell fusion of osteoclasts. Especially, a decrease in bone resorption activity through suppression of actin ring formation by A2BAR stimulation was observed. Taken together, these results suggest that A2BAR stimulation inhibits the activation of ERK1/2, p38 and NF-κB by RANKL, which suppresses the induction of osteoclast marker genes, thus contributing to the decrease in osteoclast cell-cell fusion and bone resorption activity.

  • ArticleOctober 31, 2017

    4 339 1021

    The Candidate Tumor Suppressor Gene SLC8A2 Inhibits Invasion, Angiogenesis and Growth of Glioblastoma

    Mingqi Qu, Ju Yu, Hongyuan Liu, Ying Ren, Chunxiao Ma, Xingyao Bu, and Qing Lan

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(10): 761-772 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0104
    Abstract

    Abstract : Glioblastoma is the most frequent and most aggressive brain tumor in adults. Solute carrier family 8 member 2 (SLC8A2) is only expressed in normal brain, but not present in other human normal tissues or in gliomas. Therefore, we hypothesized that SLC8A2 might be a glioma tumor suppressor gene and detected the role of SLC8A2 in glioblastoma and explored the underlying molecular mechanism. The glioblastoma U87MG cells stably transfected with the lentivirus plasmid containg SLC8A2 (U87MG-SLC8A2) and negative control (U87MG-NC) were constructed. In the present study, we found that the tumorigenicity of U87MG in nude mice was totally inhibited by SLC8A2. Overexpression of SLC8A2 had no effect on cell proliferation or cell cycle, but impaired the invasion and migration of U87MG cells, most likely through inactivating the extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK)1/2 signaling pathway, inhibiting the nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), reducing the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)-its receptor (uPAR) system (ERK1/2-NF-κB-MMPs/uPA-uPAR), and altering the protein levels of epithelial to mesenchymal transitions (EMT)-associated proteins E-cardherin, vimentin and Snail. In addition, SLC8A2 inhibited the angiogenesis of U87MG cells, probably through combined inhibition of endothelium-dependent and endothelium-nondependent angiogenesis (vascular mimicry pattern). Totally, SLC8A2 serves as a tumor suppressor gene and inhibits invasion, angiogenesis and growth of glioblastoma.

  • ArticleOctober 31, 2017

    2 330 941
    Abstract

    Abstract : The loss of green coloration via chlorophyll (Chl) degradation typically occurs during leaf senescence. To date, many Chl catabolic enzymes have been identified and shown to interact with light harvesting complex II to form a Chl degradation complex in senescing chloroplasts; this complex might metabolically channel phototoxic Chl catabolic intermediates to prevent oxidative damage to cells. The Chl catabolic enzyme 7-hydroxymethyl Chl a reductase (HCAR) converts 7-hydroxymethyl Chl a (7-HMC a) to Chl a. The rice (Oryza sativa) genome contains a single HCAR homolog (OsHCAR), but its exact role remains unknown. Here, we show that an oshcar knockout mutant exhibits persistent green leaves during both dark-induced and natural senescence, and accumulates 7-HMC a and pheophorbide a (Pheo a) in green leaf blades. Interestingly, both rice and Arabidopsis hcar mutants exhibit severe cell death at the vegetative stage; this cell death largely occurs in a light intensity-dependent manner. In addition, 7-HMC a treatment led to the generation of singlet oxygen (1O2) in Arabidopsis and rice protoplasts in the light. Under herbicide-induced oxidative stress conditions, leaf necrosis was more severe in hcar plants than in wild type, and HCAR-overexpressing plants were more tolerant to reactive oxygen species than wild type. Therefore, in addition to functioning in the conversion of 7-HMC a to Chl a in senescent leaves, HCAR may play a critical role in protecting plants from high light-induced damage by preventing the accumulation of 7-HMC a and Pheo a in developing and mature leaves at the vegetative stage.

  • ArticleOctober 31, 2017

    5 308 1037

    Ionotropic Receptor 76b Is Required for Gustatory Aversion to Excessive Na+ in Drosophila

    Min Jung Lee, Ha Yeon Sung, HyunJi Jo, Hyung-Wook Kim, Min Sung Choi, Jae Young Kwon, and KyeongJin Kang

    Mol. Cells 2017; 40(10): 787-795 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0160
    Abstract

    Abstract : Avoiding ingestion of excessively salty food is essential for cation homeostasis that underlies various physiological processes in organisms. The molecular and cellular basis of the aversive salt taste, however, remains elusive. Through a behavioral reverse genetic screening, we discover that feeding suppression by Na+-rich food requires Ionotropic Receptor 76b (Ir76b) in Drosophila labellar gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). Concentrated sodium solutions with various anions caused feeding suppression dependent on Ir76b. Feeding aversion to caffeine and high concentrations of divalent cations and sorbitol was unimpaired in Ir76b-deficient animals, indicating sensory specificity of Ir76b-dependent Na+ detection and the irrelevance of hyperosmolarity-driven mechanosensation to Ir76b-mediated feeding aversion. Ir76b-dependent Na+-sensing GRNs in both L? and s-bristles are required for repulsion as opposed to the previous report where the L-bristle GRNs direct only low-Na+ attraction. Our work extends the physiological implications of Ir76b from low-Na+ attraction to high-Na+ aversion, prompting further investigation of the physiological mechanisms that modulate two competing components of Na+-evoked gustation coded in heterogeneous Ir76b-positive GRNs.

  • ArticleOctober 31, 2017

    2 227 713
    Abstract

    Abstract : Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have been integrated into vertebrate genomes and have momentously affected host organisms. Horses (Equus caballus) have been domesticated and selected for elite racing ability over centuries. ERVs played an important role in the evolutionary diversification of the horse genome. In the present study, we identified six equine ERV families (EqERVs-E1, I1, M2, P1, S1, and Y4), their full-length viral open reading frames (ORFs), and elucidated their phylogenetic relationships. The divergence time of EqERV families assuming an evolutionary rate of 0.2%/Myr indicated that EqERV-S3 (75.4 million years ago; mya) on chromosome 10 is an old EqERV family and EqERV-P5 (1.2 Mya) on chromosome 12 is a young member. During the evolutionary diversification of horses, the EqERV-I family diverged 1.7 Mya to 38.7 Mya. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) amplification of EqERV pol genes showed greater expression in the cerebellum of the Jeju horse than the Thoroughbred horse. These results could contribute further dynamic studies for horse genome in relation to EqERV gene function.

Mol. Cells
Sep 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.9
COVER PICTURE
The Target of Rapamycin Complex (TORC) is a central regulatory hub in eukaryotes, which is well conserved in diverse plant species, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Inhibition of TORC genes (SlTOR, SlLST8, and SlRAPTOR) by VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing) results in early fruit ripening in tomato. The red/ orange tomatoes are early-ripened TORC-silenced fruits, while the green tomato is a control fruit. Top, left, control fruit (TRV2-myc); top, right, TRV2-SlLST8; bottom, left, TRV2-SlTOR; bottom, right, TRV2-SlRAPTOR(Choi et al., pp. 660-672).

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