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  • MinireviewAugust 31, 2016

    10 558 2427

    Post-Translational Regulation of miRNA Pathway Components, AGO1 and HYL1, in Plants

    Seok Keun Cho, Moon Young Ryu, Pratik Shah, Christian Peter Poulsen, and Seong Wook Yang

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(8): 581-586

    Abstract : Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins are essential to increase the functional diversity of the proteome. By adding chemical groups to proteins, or degrading entire proteins by phosphorylation, glycosylation, ubiquitination, neddylation, acetylation, lipidation, and proteolysis, the complexity of the proteome increases, and this then influences most biological processes. Although small RNAs are crucial regulatory elements for gene expression in most eukaryotes, PTMs of small RNA microprocessor and RNA silencing components have not been extensively investigated in plants. To date, several studies have shown that the proteolytic regulation of AGOs is important for host-pathogen interactions. DRB4 is regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and the degradation of HYL1 is modulated by a de-etiolation repressor, COP1, and an unknown cytoplasmic protease. Here, we discuss current findings on the PTMs of microprocessor and RNA silencing components in plants.

  • MinireviewAugust 31, 2016

    56 644 3776

    Abstract : As sessile organisms, plants must be able to adapt to the environment. Plants respond to the environment by adjusting their growth and development, which is mediated by sophisticated signaling networks that integrate multiple environmental and endogenous signals. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that a bHLH transcription factor PIF4 plays a major role in the multiple signal integration for plant growth regulation. PIF4 is a positive regulator in cell elongation and its activity is regulated by various environmental signals, including light and temperature, and hormonal signals, including auxin, gibberellic acid and brassinosteroid, both transcriptionally and post-translationally. Moreover, recent studies have shown that the circadian clock and metabolic status regulate endogenous PIF4 level. The PIF4 transcription factor cooperatively regulates the target genes involved in cell elongation with hormone-regulated transcription factors. Therefore, PIF4 is a key integrator of multiple signaling pathways, which optimizes growth in the environment. This review will discuss our current understanding of the PIF4-mediated signaling networks that control plant growth.

  • ArticleAugust 31, 2016

    7 264 756

    Enhancement of the Chaperone Activity of Alkyl Hydroperoxide Reductase C from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Resulting from a Point-Specific Mutation Confers Heat Tolerance in Escherichia coli

    Jae Taek Lee, Seung Sik Lee, Suvendu Mondal, Bhumi Nath Tripathi, Siu Kim, Keun Woo Lee, Sung Hyun Hong, Hyoung-Woo Bai, Jae-Young Cho, and Byung Yeoup Chung

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(8): 594-602

    Abstract : Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (PaAhpC) is a member of the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin family. Here, we examined the peroxidase and molecular chaperone functions of PaAhpC using a site-directed mutagenesis approach by substitution of Ser and Thr residues with Cys at positions 78 and 105 located between two catalytic cysteines. Substitution of Ser with Cys at position 78 enhanced the chaperone activity of the mutant (S78C-PaAhpC) by approximately 9-fold compared with that of the wild-type protein (WT-PaAhpC). This increased activity may have been associated with the proportionate increase in the high-molecular-weight (HMW) fraction and enhanced hydrophobicity of S78C-PaAhpC. Homology modeling revealed that mutation of Ser78 to Cys78 resulted in a more compact decameric structure than that observed in WT-PaAhpC and decreased the atomic distance between the two neighboring sulfur atoms of Cys78 in the dimer-dimer interface of S78C-PaAhpC, which could be responsible for the enhanced hydrophobic interaction at the dimer-dimer interface. Furthermore, complementation assays showed that S78C-PaAhpC exhibited greatly improved the heat tolerance, resulting in enhanced survival under thermal stress. Thus, addition of Cys at position 78 in PaAhpC modulated the functional shifting of this protein from a peroxidase to a chaperone.

  • ArticleAugust 31, 2016

    10 322 1059

    Impaired Memory in OT-II Transgenic Mice Is Associated with Decreased Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis Possibly Induced by Alteration in Th2 Cytokine Levels

    Seong Gak Jeon, Kyoung Ah Kim, Hyunju Chung, Junghyun Choi, Eun Ji Song, Seung-Yun Han, Myung Sook Oh, Jong Hwan Park, Jin-il Kim, and Minho Moon

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(8): 603-610

    Abstract : Recently, an increasing number of studies have focused on the effects of CD4+ T cell on cognitive function. However, the changes of Th2 cytokines in restricted CD4+ T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire model and their effects on the adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether and how the mice with restricted CD4+ repertoire TCR exhibit learning and memory impairment by using OT-II mice. OT-II mice showed decreased adult neurogenesis in hippocampus and short- and long- term memory impairment. Moreover, Th2 cytokines in OT-II mice are significantly increased in peripheral organs and IL-4 is significantly increased in brain. Finally, IL-4 treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation of cultured adult rat hippocampal neural stem cells. Taken together, abnormal level of Th2 cytokines can lead memory dysfunction via impaired adult neurogenesis in OT-II transgenic.

  • ArticleAugust 31, 2016

    58 396 1501

    Abstract : Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) with aberrant expression of microRNA (miRNA) are critical pathogenic regulators in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Previous studies have found that overexpression or silencing of miRNA can contribute to the development of miRNA-based therapeutics in arthritis models. In this study, we explored the effects of miR-27a on cell migration and invasion in cultured FLS from RA patients. We found that miR-27a was markedly downregulated in the serum, synovial tissue, and FLS of RA patients. Meanwhile, the expression of follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL1) was upregulated, which suggests that FSTL1 plays a key role in RA development. The results of a Transwell assay showed that miR-27a inhibited FLS migration and invasion. However, miR-27a inhibition promoted the migration and invasion of FLS. In addition, the down-regulated expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9, and MMP13) and Rho family proteins (Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA) was detected after treatment with miR-27a in RA-FLS by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analysis. Then, a luciferase reporter assay validated that miR-27a targeted the 3-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of FSTL1. Moreover, miR-27a caused a significant decrease of FSTL1. In addition, the expression of TLR4 and NFκB was inhibited by miR-27a but increased by FSTL1 overexpression. In conclusion, we found that miR-27a inhibited cell migration and invasion of RA-FLS by targeting FSTL1 and restraining the TLR4/NFκB pathway.

  • ArticleAugust 31, 2016

    19 212 869

    MicroRNA-203 As a Stemness Inhibitor of Glioblastoma Stem Cells

    Yifan Deng, Gang Zhu, Honghai Luo, and Shiguang Zhao

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(8): 619-624

    Abstract : Glioblastoma stem cells (GBM-SCs) are believed to be a subpopulation within all glioblastoma (GBM) cells that are in large part responsible for tumor growth and the high grade of therapeutic resistance that is so characteristic of GBM. MicroRNAs (miR) have been implicated in regulating the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in cancer stem cells, including GBM-SCs, and they are a potential target for cancer therapy. In the current study, miR-203 expression was reduced in CD133+ GBM-SCs derived from six human GBM biopsies. MicroRNA-203 transfected GBM-SCs had reduced capacity for self-renewal in the cell sphere assay and increased expression of glial and neuronal differentiation markers. In addition, a reduced proliferation rate and an increased rate of apoptosis were observed. Therefore, miR-203 has the potential to reduce features of stemness, specifically in GBM-SCs, and is a logical target for GBM gene therapy.

  • ArticleAugust 31, 2016

    11 269 1231

    Transforming Growth Factor-β-Induced RBFOX3 Inhibition Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Lung Cancer Cells

    Yong-Eun Kim, Jong Ok Kim, Ki-Sun Park, Minho Won, Kyoon Eon Kim, and Kee K. Kim

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(8): 625-630

    Abstract : The RNA-binding protein Rbfox3 is a well-known splicing regulator that is used as a marker for post-mitotic neurons in various vertebrate species. Although recent studies indicate a variable expression of Rbfox3 in non-neuronal tissues, including lung tissue, its cellular function in lung cancer remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the number of RBFOX3-positive cells in tumorous lung tissue is lower than that in normal lung tissue. As the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway is important in cancer progression, we investigated its role in RBFOX3 expression in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. TGF-β1 treatment inhibited RBFOX3 expression at the transcriptional level. Further, RBFOX3 depletion led to a change in the expression levels of a subset of proteins related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as E-cadherin and Claudin-1, during TGF-β1-induced EMT. In immunofluorescence microscopic analysis, mesenchymal morphology was more prominent in RBFOX3-depleted cells than in control cells. These findings show that TGF-β-induced RBFOX3 inhibition plays an important role in EMT and propose a novel role for RBFOX3 in cancer progression.

  • ArticleAugust 31, 2016

    18 289 1378

    Epigenetic and Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Glutathione Peroxidase 3 in Lung Cancer Cells

    Byung Chull An, Nak-Kyun Jung, Chun Young Park, In-Jae Oh, Yoo-Duk Choi, Jae-Il Park, and Seung-won Lee

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(8): 631-638

    Abstract : Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3), an antioxidant enzyme, acts as a modulator of redox signaling, has immunomodulatory function, and catalyzes the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). GPx3 has been identified as a tumor suppressor in many cancers. Although hyper-methylation of the GPx3 promoter has been shown to down-regulate its expression, other mechanisms by which GPx3 expression is regulated have not been reported. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the mechanisms of GPx3 regulation. GPx3 gene analysis predicted the presence of ten glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) on the GPx3 gene. This result prompted us to investigate whether GPx3 expression is regulated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is implicated in tumor response to chemotherapy. The corticosteroid dexamethasone (Dex) was used to examine the possible relationship between GR and GPx3 expression. Dex significantly induced GPx3 expression in H1299, H1650, and H1975 cell lines, which exhibit low levels of GPx3 expression under normal conditions. The results of EMSA and ChIP-PCR suggest that GR binds directly to GRE 6 and 7, both of which are located near the GPx3 promoter. Assessment of GPx3 transcription efficiency using a luciferase reporter system showed that blocking formation of the GR-GRE complexes reduced luciferase activity by 7?8-fold. Suppression of GR expression by siRNA transfection also induced down-regulation of GPx3. These data indicate that GPx3 expression can be regulated independently via epigenetic or GR-mediated mechanisms in lung cancer cells, and suggest that GPx3 could potentiate glucocorticoid (GC)-mediated anti-inflammatory signaling in lung cancer cells.

  • ArticleAugust 31, 2016

    15 371 818

    Combined Detection of Serum IL-10, IL-17, and CXCL10 Predicts Acute Rejection Following Adult Liver Transplantation

    Nayoung Kim, Young-In Yoon, Hyun Ju Yoo, Eunyoung Tak, Chul-Soo Ahn, Gi-Won Song, Sung-Gyu Lee, and Shin Hwang

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(8): 639-644

    Abstract : Discovery of non-invasive diagnostic and predictive biomarkers for acute rejection in liver transplant patients would help to ensure the preservation of liver function in the graft, eventually contributing to improved graft and patient survival. We evaluated selected cytokines and chemokines in the sera from liver transplant patients as potential biomarkers for acute rejection, and found that the combined detection of IL-10, IL-17, and CXCL10 at 1-2 weeks post-operation could predict acute rejection following adult liver transplantation with 97% specificity and 94% sensitivity.

Mol. Cells
Sep 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.9
The Target of Rapamycin Complex (TORC) is a central regulatory hub in eukaryotes, which is well conserved in diverse plant species, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Inhibition of TORC genes (SlTOR, SlLST8, and SlRAPTOR) by VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing) results in early fruit ripening in tomato. The red/ orange tomatoes are early-ripened TORC-silenced fruits, while the green tomato is a control fruit. Top, left, control fruit (TRV2-myc); top, right, TRV2-SlLST8; bottom, left, TRV2-SlTOR; bottom, right, TRV2-SlRAPTOR(Choi et al., pp. 660-672).


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