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  • MinireviewApril 30, 2016

    30 441 3074
    Abstract

    Abstract : Almost all of eukaryotic mRNAs are subjected to polyadenylation during mRNA processing. Recent discoveries showed that many of these mRNAs contain more than one polyadenylation sites in their 3′ untranslated regions (UTR) and that alternative polyadenylation (APA) is prevalent among these genes. Many biological processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and tumorigenesis have been correlated to global APA events in the 3′ UTR of mRNAs, suggesting that these APA events are tightly regulated and may play important physiological roles. In this review, recent discoveries in the physiological roles of APA events, as well as the known and proposed mechanisms are summarized. Perspective for future directions is also discussed.

  • MinireviewApril 30, 2016

    34 467 2455

    Structural and Mechanistic Insights into the Tropism of Epstein-Barr Virus

    Britta S. M?hl, Jia Chen, Karthik Sathiyamoorthy, Theodore S. Jardetzky, and Richard Longnecker

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(4): 286-291 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0066
    Abstract

    Abstract : Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the prototypical γ-herpesvirus and an obligate human pathogen that infects mainly epithelial cells and B cells, which can result in malignancies. EBV infects these target cells by fusing with the viral and cellular lipid bilayer membranes using multiple viral factors and host receptor(s) thus exhibiting a unique complexity in its entry machinery. To enter epithelial cells, EBV requires minimally the conserved core fusion machinery comprised of the glycoproteins gH/gL acting as the receptor-binding complex and gB as the fusogen. EBV can enter B cells using gp42, which binds tightly to gH/gL and interacts with host HLA class II, activating fusion. Previously, we published the individual crystal structures of EBV entry factors, such as gH/gL and gp42, the EBV/host receptor complex, gp42/HLA-DR1, and the fusion protein EBV gB in a postfusion conformation, which allowed us to identify structural determinants and regions critical for receptor-binding and membrane fusion. Recently, we reported different low resolution models of the EBV B cell entry triggering complex (gHgL/gp42/HLA class II) in “open” and “closed” states based on negative-stain single particle electron microscopy, which provide further mechanistic insights. This review summarizes the current knowledge of these key players in EBV entry and how their structures impact receptor-binding and the triggering of gB-mediated fusion.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2016

    12 437 1261

    Endothelial Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) Expression Is Regulated by Transcription Factor Mef2c

    Yong Jiang, He Liu, Wen-jing Liu, Hai-bin Tong, Chang-jun Chen, Fu-gui Lin, Yan-hang Zhuo, Xiao-zhen Qian, Zeng-bin Wang, Yu Wang, Peng Zhang, and Hong-liang Jia

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(4): 292-298 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.2223
    Abstract

    Abstract : Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is expressed in most microvasculature endothelial cells and forms water channels that play major roles in a variety of physiologic processes. This study aimed to delineate the transcriptional regulation of AQP1 by Mef2c in endothelial cells. Mef2c cooperated with Sp1 to activate human AQP1 transcription by binding to its proximal promoter in human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Over-expression of Mef2c, Sp1, or Mef2c/Sp1 increased HUVEC migration and tube-forming ability, which can be abolished AQP1 knockdown. These data indicate that AQP1 is a direct target of Mef2c in regulating angiogenesis and vasculogenesis of endothelial cells.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2016

    11 359 1201
    Abstract

    Abstract : We have previously reported the role of miR-217 in anti-cancer drug-resistance. miRNA array and miRNA hybridization analysis predicted miR-30a-3p as a target of miR-217. miR-30a-3p and miR-217 formed a negative feedback loop and regulated the expression of each other. Ago1 immunoprecipitation and co-localization analysis revealed a possible interaction between miR-30a-3p and miR-217. miR-30a-3p conferred resistance to anti-cancer drugs and enhanced the invasion, migration, angiogenic, tumorigenic, and metastatic potential of cancer cells in CAGE-dependent manner. CAGE increased the expression of miR-30a-3p by binding to the promoter sequences of miR-30a-3p, suggesting a positive feedback loop between CAGE and miR-30a-3p. miR-30a-3p decreased the expression of p53, which showed the binding to the promoter sequences of miR-30a-3p and CAGE in anti-cancer drug-sensitive cancer cells. Luciferase activity assays showed that p53 serves as a target of miR-30a. Thus, the miR-30a-3p-CAGE-p53 feedback loop serves as a target for overcoming resistance to anti-cancer drugs.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2016

    22 505 1321
    Abstract

    Abstract : Coumarin is a phenolic compound that mainly affects the liver due to its metabolization into a toxic compound. The deterrent and ovicidal activities of coumarin in insect models such as Drosophila melanogaster have been reported. Here we explore the molecular mechanisms by which these insects protect themselves and their eggs from this toxic plant metabolite. Coumarin was fatal to the flies in a dosage-dependent manner. However, coumarin feeding could be inhibited through activation of the aversive gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs), but not the olfactory receptor neurons. Furthermore, three gustatory receptors, GR33a, GR66a, and GR93a, functioned together in coumarin detection by the proboscis. However, GR33a, but not GR66a and GR93a, was required to avoid coumarin during oviposition, with a choice of the same substrates provided as in binary food choice assay. Taken together, these findings suggest that anti-feeding activity and oviposition to avoid coumarin occur via separate mechanisms.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2016

    5 302 1018

    Design of a RANK-Mimetic Peptide Inhibitor of Osteoclastogenesis with Enhanced RANKL-Binding Affinity

    Jeonghwan Hur, Ambarnil Ghosh, Kabsun Kim, Hai Minh Ta, Hyunju Kim, Nacksung Kim, Hye-Yeon Hwang, and Kyeong Kyu Kim

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(4): 316-321 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.2286
    Abstract

    Abstract : The receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) and its ligand RANKL are key regulators of osteoclastogenesis and well-recognized targets in developing treatments for bone disorders associated with excessive bone resorption, such as osteoporosis. Our previous work on the structure of the RANK-RANKL complex revealed that Loop3 of RANK, specifically the non-canonical disulfide bond at the tip, performs a crucial role in specific recognition of RANKL. It also demonstrated that peptide mimics of Loop3 were capable of interfering with the function of RANKL in osteoclastogenesis. Here, we reported the structure-based design of a smaller peptide with enhanced inhibitory efficiency. The kinetic analysis and osteoclast differentiation assay showed that in addition to the sharp turn induced by the disulfide bond, two consecutive arginine residues were also important for binding to RANKL and inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Docking and molecular dynamics simulations proposed the binding mode of the peptide to the RANKL trimer, showing that the arginine residues provide electrostatic interactions with RANKL and contribute to stabilizing the complex. These findings provided useful information for the rational design of therapeutics for bone diseases associated with RANK/RANKL function.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2016

    11 357 983

    Dual Regulation of R-Type CaV2.3 Channels by M1 Muscarinic Receptors

    Jin-Young Jeong, Hae-Jin Kweon, and Byung-Chang Suh

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(4): 322-329 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.2292
    Abstract

    Abstract : Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channels are dynamically modulated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). The M1 muscarinic receptor stimulation is known to enhance CaV2.3 channel gating through the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Here, we found that M1 receptors also inhibit CaV2.3 currents when the channels are fully activated by PKC. In whole-cell configuration, the application of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, potentiated CaV2.3 currents by ∼two-fold. After the PMA-induced potentiation, stimulation of M1 receptors decreased the CaV2.3 currents by 52 ± 8%. We examined whether the depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is responsible for the muscarinic suppression of CaV2.3 currents by using two methods: the Danio rerio voltage-sensing phosphatase (Dr-VSP) system and the rapamycin-induced translocatable pseudojanin (PJ) system. First, dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) by Dr-VSP significantly suppressed CaV2.3 currents, by 53 ± 3%. Next, dephosphorylation of both PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2 to PI by PJ translocation further decreased the current by up to 66 ± 3%. The results suggest that CaV2.3 currents are modulated by the M1 receptor in a dual mode?that is, potentiation through the activation of PKC and suppression by the depletion of membrane PI(4,5)P2. Our results also suggest that there is rapid turnover between PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2016

    110 438 2564
    Abstract

    Abstract : Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in multiple cellular events, as well as in tumorigenesis. Colon cancer-associated transcript-1 (CCAT1) gene encodes an lncRNA whose over-activation was observed in an expanding list of primary human solid tumors and tumor cell lines, however its biological roles in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) has not been reported yet at present. In this study, the aberrant upregulation of CCAT1 was detected in French-American-British M4 and M5 subtypes of adult AML patients. By gain- and loss-of-function analysis, we determined that CCAT1 repressed monocytic differentiation and promoted cell growth of HL-60 by sequestering tumor suppressive miR-155. Accordingly, a significant decrease in miR-155 level was detected in AML patients. Re-introduction of miR-155 into HL-60 cells restored monocytic maturation and repressed cell proliferation. Furthermore, CCAT1 could up-regulated c-Myc via its competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) activity on miR-155. In conclusion, these results revealed new mechanism of lncRNA CCAT1 in AML development, and suggested that the manipulation of CCAT1 expression could serve as a potential strategy in AML therapy.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2016

    3 458 883

    Attenuation of Postischemic Genomic Alteration by Mesenchymal Stem Cells: a Microarray Study

    Chunggab Choi, Seung-Hun Oh, Jeong-Eun Noh, Yong-Woo Jeong, Soonhag Kim, Jung Jae Ko, Ok-Joon Kim, and Jihwan Song

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(4): 337-344 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.2317
    Abstract

    Abstract : Intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells (IV-MSC) protects the ischemic rat brain in a stroke model, but the molecular mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect is unclear. We compared genomic profiles using the mRNA microarray technique in a rodent stroke model. Rats were treated with 1 × 106 IV-MSC or saline (sham group) 2 h after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). mRNA microarray was conducted 72 h after MCAo using brain tissue from normal rats (normal group) and the sham and MSC groups. Predicted pathway analysis was performed in differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and functional tests and immunohistochemistry for inflammation-related proteins were performed. We identified 857 DEGs between the sham and normal groups, with the majority of them (88.7%) upregulated in sham group. Predicted pathway analysis revealed that cerebral ischemia activated 10 signaling pathways mainly related to inflammation and cell cycle. IV-MSC attenuated the numbers of dysregulated genes in cerebral ischemia (118 DEGs between the MSC and normal groups). In addition, a total of 218 transcripts were differentially expressed between the MSC and sham groups, and most of them (175/218 DEGs, 80.2%) were downregulated in the MSC group. IV-MSC reduced the number of Iba-1+ cells in the peri-infarct area, reduced the overall infarct size, and improved functional deficits in MCAo rats. In conclusion, transcriptome analysis revealed that IV-MSC attenuated postischemic genomic alterations in the ischemic brain. Amelioration of dysregulated inflammation- and cell cycle-related gene expression in the host brain is one of the molecular mechanisms of IV-MSC therapy for cerebral ischemia.

  • ArticleApril 30, 2016

    11 341 945
    Abstract

    Abstract : Wound healing is a complex physiological process necessitating the coordinated action of various cell types, signals and microRNAs (miRNAs). However, little is known regarding the role of miRNAs in mediating this process. In the present study, we show that let-7c miRNA is decreased in heat-denatured fibroblasts and that inhibiting let-7c expression leads to the increased proliferation and migration of dermal fibroblasts, whereas the overexpression of let-7c exerts an opposite effect. Further investigation has identified heat shock protein 70 as a direct target of let-7c and has demonstrated that the expression of HSP70 in fibroblasts is negatively correlated with let-7c levels. Moreover, down-regulation of let-7c expression is accompanied by up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and down-regulation of Bax expression, both of which are the downstream genes of HSP70. Notably, the knockdown of HSP70 by HSP70 siRNA apparently abrogates the stimulatory effect of let-7c inhibitor on heat-denatured fibroblasts proliferation and migration. Overall, we have identified let-7c as a key regulator that inhibits fibroblasts proliferation and migration during wound healing.

Mol. Cells
Nov 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.11
COVER PICTURE
Naive (cyan) and axotomized (magenta) retinal ganglion cell axons in Xenopus tropicalis (Choi et al., pp. 846-854).

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