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  • MinireviewFebruary 29, 2016

    76 694 5130

    An Integrative Approach to Precision Cancer Medicine Using Patient-Derived Xenografts

    Sung-Yup Cho, Wonyoung Kang, Jee Yun Han, Seoyeon Min, Jinjoo Kang, Ahra Lee, Jee Young Kwon, Charles Lee, and Hansoo Park

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(2): 77-86 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.2350
    Abstract

    Abstract : Cancer is a heterogeneous disease caused by diverse genomic alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Despite recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies and development of targeted therapies, novel cancer drug development is limited due to the high attrition rate from clinical studies. Patient-derived xenografts (PDX), which are established by the transfer of patient tumors into immunodeficient mice, serve as a platform for co-clinical trials by enabling the integration of clinical data, genomic profiles, and drug responsiveness data to determine precisely targeted therapies. PDX models retain many of the key characteristics of patients’ tumors including histology, genomic signature, cellular heterogeneity, and drug responsiveness. These models can also be applied to the development of biomarkers for drug responsiveness and personalized drug selection. This review summarizes our current knowledge of this field, including methodologic aspects, applications in drug development, challenges and limitations, and utilization for precision cancer medicine.

  • MinireviewFebruary 29, 2016

    327 2773 9128

    Sirt1 and the Mitochondria

    Bor Luen Tang

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(2): 87-95 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.2318
    Abstract

    Abstract : Sirt1 is the most prominent and extensively studied member of sirtuins, the family of mammalian class III histone deacetylases heavily implicated in health span and longevity. Although primarily a nuclear protein, Sirt1’s deacetylation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Gamma Coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) has been extensively implicated in metabolic control and mitochondrial biogenesis, which was proposed to partially underlie Sirt1’s role in caloric restriction and impacts on longevity. The notion of Sirt1’s regulation of PGC-1α activity and its role in mitochondrial biogenesis has, however, been controversial. Interestingly, Sirt1 also appears to be important for the turnover of defective mitochondria by mitophagy. I discuss here evidences for Sirt1’s regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover, in relation to PGC-1α deacetylation and various aspects of cellular physiology and disease.

  • ArticleFebruary 29, 2016

    28 373 1227

    miR-101 Inhibiting Cell Proliferation, Migration and Invasion in Hepatocellular Carcinoma through Downregulating Girdin

    Ke Cao, Jingjing Li, Yong Zhao, Qi Wang, Qinghai Zeng, Siqi He, Li Yu, Jianda Zhou, and Peiguo Cao

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(2): 96-102 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.2161
    Abstract

    Abstract : miR-101 is considered to play an important role in hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we aimed to confirm whether Girdin is a target gene of miR-101 and determine the tumor suppressor of miR-101 through Girdin pathway. In our previous studies, we firstly found Girdin protein was overexpressed in HCC tissues, and it closely correlated to tumor size, T stage, TNM stage and Edmondson-Steiner stage of HCC patients. After specific small interfering RNA of Girdin was transfected into HepG2 and Huh7.5.1 cells, the proliferation and invasion ability of tumor cells were significantly inhibited. In this study, we further explored the detailed molecular mechanism of Girdin in HCC. Interestingly, we found that miR-101 significantly low-expressed in HCC tissues compared with that in matched normal tissues while Girdin had a relative higher expression, and miR-101 was inversely correlated with Girdin expression. In addition, after miR-101 transfection, the proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of HepG2 cells were weakened. Furthermore, we confirmed that Girdin is a direct target gene of miR-101. Finally we confirmed Talen-mediated Girdin knockout markedly suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion in HCC while down-regulation of miR-101 significantly restored the inhibitory effect. Our findings suggested that miR-101/Girdin axis could be a potential application of HCC treatment.

  • ArticleFebruary 29, 2016

    22 460 1619
    Abstract

    Abstract : As a degenerative joint disease, osteoarthritis (OA) constitutes a major cause of disability that seriously affects the quality of life of a large population of people worldwide. However, effective treatment that can successfully reverse OA progression is lacking until now. The present study aimed to determine whether two small non-coding RNAs miR-29a and miR-140, which are significantly down-regulated in OA, can be applied together as potential therapeutic targets for OA treatment. MiRNA synergy score was used to screen the miRNA pairs that potentially synergistically regulate OA. An in vitro model of OA was established by treating murine chondrocytes with IL-1β. Transfection of miR-29a and miR-140 via plasmids was investigated on chondrocyte proliferation and expression of nine genes such as ADAMTS4, ADAMTS5, ACAN, COL2A1, COL10A1, MMP1, MMP3, MMP13 and TIMP metal-lopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1). Western blotting was used to determine the protein expression level of MMP13 and TIMP1, and ELISA was used to detect the content of type II collagen. Combined use of miR-29a and miR-140 successfully reversed the destructive effect of IL-1β on chondrocyte proliferation, and notably affected the MMP13 and TIMP1 gene expression that regulates extracellular matrix. Although co-transfection of miR-29a and miR-140 did not show a synergistic effect on MMP13 protein expression and type II collagen release, but both of them can significantly suppress the protein abundance of MMP13 and restore the type II collagen release in IL-1β treated chondrocytes. Compared with single miRNA transfection, cotransfection of both miRNAs exceedingly abrogated the suppressed the protein production of TIMP1 caused by IL-1β, thereby suggesting potent synergistic action. These results provided novel insights into the important function of miRNAs’ collaboration in OA pathological development. The reduced MMP13, and enhanced TIMP1 protein production and type II collagen release also implies that miR-29a and miR-140 combination treatment may be a possible treatment for OA.

  • ArticleFebruary 29, 2016

    55 559 2317

    A Role for Arabidopsis miR399f in Salt, Drought, and ABA Signaling

    Dongwon Baek, Hyun Jin Chun, Songhwa Kang, Gilok Shin, Su Jung Park, Hyewon Hong, Chanmin Kim, Doh Hoon Kim, Sang Yeol Lee, Min Chul Kim, and Dae-Jin Yun

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(2): 111-118 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.2188
    Abstract

    Abstract : MiR399f plays a crucial role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under phosphate starvation conditions, AtMYB2, which plays a role in plant salt and drought stress responses, directly regulates the expression of miR399f. In this study, we found that miR399f also participates in plant responses to abscisic acid (ABA), and to abiotic stresses including salt and drought. Salt and ABA treatment induced the expression of miR399f, as confirmed by histochemical analysis of promoter-GUS fusions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing miR399f (miR399f-OE) exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt stress and exogenous ABA, but hypersensitivity to drought. Our in silico analysis identified ABF3 and CSP41b as putative target genes of miR399f, and expression analysis revealed that mRNA levels of ABF3 and CSP41b decreased remarkably in miR399f-OE plants under salt stress and in response to treatment with ABA. Moreover, we showed that activation of stress-responsive gene expression in response to salt stress and ABA treatment was impaired in miR399f-OE plants. Thus, these results suggested that in addition to phosphate starvation signaling, miR399f might also modulates plant responses to salt, ABA, and drought, by regulating the expression of newly discovered target genes such as ABF3 and CSP41b.

  • ArticleFebruary 29, 2016

    8 475 1392
    Abstract

    Abstract : Angelica polymorpha Maxim root extract (APRE) is a popular herbal medicine used for treating stomachache, abdominal pain, stomach ulcers, and rheumatism; however the effect of APRE on cancer cells has not yet been explored. Here, we examined APRE cytotoxicity seen on target neuroblastoma cells (NB) using cell viability assays, DAPI visualization of fragmented DNA, and Western blotting analysis of candidate signaling pathways involved in proliferation and apoptosis. We demonstrated that APRE reduced cell viability in NB to a greater extent than in fibroblast cells. In addition, we found that APRE could inhibit the three classes of MAPK proteins and could also down-regulate the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β activity all being relevant for proliferation and survival. APRE could also up-regulate Bax expression and down-regulate Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. With APRE treatment, depolarization of mitochondria membrane potential and activation of caspase-3 was demonstrated in the SH-SY5Y cells. We could not found increased activity of death receptor and caspase-8 as markers of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway for the APRE treated cells. In presence of a caspase-3 siRNA and a pan-caspase inhibitor, APRE could not reduce the viability of NB cells to a significant degree. So we predicted that with APRE, the intrinsic pathway was solely responsible for inducing apoptosis as we also showed that the non-caspase autophagy pathway or ER stress-ROS mediated pathways were not involved. These findings demonstrate that an intrinsic mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway mediates the apoptotic effects of APRE on SH-SY5Y cells, and that APRE shows promise as a novel agent for neuroblastoma therapy.

  • ArticleFebruary 29, 2016

    21 434 1280

    Salubrinal-Mediated Upregulation of eIF2α Phosphorylation Increases Doxorubicin Sensitivity in MCF-7/ADR Cells

    Yong-Joon Jeon, Jin Hyun Kim, Jong-Il Shin, Mini Jeong, Jaewook Cho, and Kyungho Lee

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(2): 129-135 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.2243
    Abstract

    Abstract : Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α), which is a component of the eukaryotic translation initiation complex, functions in cell death and survival under various stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the roles of eIF2α phosphorylation in cell death using the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR. MCF-7/ADR cells are MCF-7-driven cells that have acquired resistance to doxorubicin (ADR). Treatment of doxorubicin reduced the viability and induced apoptosis in both cell lines, although susceptibility to the drug was very different. Treatment with doxorubicin induced phosphorylation of eIF2α in MCF-7 cells but not in MCF-7/ADR cells. Basal expression levels of Growth Arrest and DNA Damage 34 (GADD34), a regulator of eIF2α, were higher in MCF-7/ADR cells compared to MCF-7 cells. Indeed, treatment with salubrinal, an inhibitor of GADD34, resulted in the upregulation of eIF2α phosphorylation and enhanced doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis in MCF-7/ADR cells. However, MCF-7 cells did not show such synergic effects. These results suggest that dephosphorylation of eIF2α by GADD34 plays an important role in doxorubicin resistance in MCF-7/ADR cells.

  • ArticleFebruary 29, 2016

    5 281 933
    Abstract

    Abstract : Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, mediate cell-to-cell contacts in a specific brain region and their bidirectional signaling is implicated in the regulation of apoptosis during early brain development. In this report, we used the alpha(α)-Cre transgenic line to induce ephrin-A5 over-expression in the distal region of the neural retina. Using this double transgenic embryo, we show that the over-expression of ephrin-A5 was responsible for inducing massive apoptosis in both the nasal and temporal retinas. In addition, the number of differentiated retinal neurons with the exception of the bipolar neuron was significantly reduced, whereas the laminar organization of the mature retina remained intact. Consistent with this finding, an analysis of the mature retina revealed that the size of the whole retina? particularly the nasal and temporal regions?is markedly reduced. These results strongly suggest that the level of ephrin-A5 expression plays a role in the regulation of the size of the retinal progenitor pool in the neural retina.

  • ArticleFebruary 29, 2016

    5 352 1153

    De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa

    Hyun A Kim, Ah-Young Shin, Min-Seon Lee, Hee-Jeong Lee, Heung-Ryul Lee, Jongmoon Ahn, Seokhyeon Nahm, Sung-Hwan Jo, Jeong Mee Park, and Suk-Yoon Kwon

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(2): 141-148 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.2264
    Abstract

    Abstract : Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family.

  • ArticleFebruary 29, 2016

    6 430 1357
    Abstract

    Abstract : In the heart, excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling is mediated by Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through the interactions of proteins forming the Ca2+ release unit (CRU). Among them, calsequestrin (CSQ) and histidine-rich Ca2+ binding protein (HRC) are known to bind the charged luminal region of triadin (TRN) and thus directly or indirectly regulate ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) activity. However, the mechanisms of CSQ and HRC mediated regulation of RyR2 activity through TRN have remained unclear. We first examined the minimal KEKE motif of TRN involved in the interactions with CSQ2, HRC and RyR2 using TRN deletion mutants and in vitro binding assays. The results showed that CSQ2, HRC and RyR2 share the same KEKE motif region on the distal part of TRN (aa 202?231). Second, in vitro binding assays were conducted to examine the Ca2+ dependence of protein-protein interactions (PPI). The results showed that TRN-HRC interaction had a bell-shaped Ca2+ dependence, which peaked at pCa4, whereas TRN-CSQ2 or TRN-RyR2 interaction did not show such Ca2+ dependence pattern. Third, competitive binding was conducted to examine whether CSQ2, HRC, or RyR2 affects the TRN-HRC or TRN-CSQ2 binding at pCa4. Among them, only CSQ2 or RyR2 competitively inhibited TRN-HRC binding, suggesting that HRC can confer functional refractoriness to CRU, which could be beneficial for reloading of Ca2+ into SR at intermediate Ca2+ concentrations.

Mol. Cells
Nov 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.11
COVER PICTURE
Naive (cyan) and axotomized (magenta) retinal ganglion cell axons in Xenopus tropicalis (Choi et al., pp. 846-854).

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