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  • MinireviewDecember 31, 2016

    13 61 2454

    Imaging Single-mRNA Localization and Translation in Live Neurons

    Byung Hun Lee, Seong-Woo Bae, Jaeyoun Jay Shim, Sung Young Park, and Hye Yoon Park

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(12): 841-846 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0277
    Abstract

    Abstract : Local protein synthesis mediates precise spatio-temporal regulation of gene expression for neuronal functions such as long-term plasticity, axon guidance and regeneration. To reveal the underlying mechanisms of local translation, it is crucial to understand mRNA transport, localization and translation in live neurons. Among various techniques for mRNA analysis, fluorescence microscopy has been widely used as the most direct method to study localization of mRNA. Live-cell imaging of single RNA molecules is particularly advantageous to dissect the highly heterogeneous and dynamic nature of messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes in neurons. Here, we review recent advances in the study of mRNA localization and translation in live neurons using novel techniques for single-RNA imaging.

  • MinireviewDecember 31, 2016

    48 86 2585

    Cancer Metabolism: Fueling More than Just Growth

    Namgyu Lee, and Dohoon Kim

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(12): 847-854 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0310
    Abstract

    Abstract : The early landmark discoveries in cancer metabolism research have uncovered metabolic processes that support rapid proliferation, such as aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect), glutaminolysis, and increased nucleotide biosynthesis. However, there are limitations to the effectiveness of specifically targeting the metabolic processes which support rapid proliferation. First, as other normal proliferative tissues also share similar metabolic features, they may also be affected by such treatments. Secondly, targeting proliferative metabolism may only target the highly proliferating “bulk tumor” cells and not the slower-growing, clinically relevant cancer stem cell subpopulations which may be required for an effective cure. An emerging body of research indicates that altered metabolism plays key roles in supporting proliferation-independent functions of cancer such as cell survival within the ischemic and acidic tumor microenvironment, immune system evasion, and maintenance of the cancer stem cell state. As these aspects of cancer cell metabolism are critical for tumor maintenance yet are less likely to be relevant in normal cells, they represent attractive targets for cancer therapy.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2016

    8 49 1240

    Ginsenoside Re Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation in Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages and Zebrafish Scale Model

    Chan-Mi Park, Hye-Min Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Ho-Jin Han, Haneul Noh, Jae-Hyuk Jang, Soo-Hyun Park, Han-Jung Chae, Soo-Wan Chae, Eun Kyoung Ryu, Sangku Lee, Kangdong Liu, Haidan Liu, Jong-Seog Ahn, Young Ock Kim, Bo-Yeon Kim, and Nak-Kyun Soung

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(12): 855-861 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0111
    Abstract

    Abstract : Ginsenosides, which are the active materials of ginseng, have biological functions that include anti-osteoporotic effects. Aqueous ginseng extract inhibits osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Aqueous ginseng extract produces chromatography peaks characteristic of ginsenosides. Among these peaks, ginsenoside Re is a major component. However, the preventive effects of ginsenoside Re against osteoclast differentiation are not known. We studied the effect of ginsenoside Re on osteoclast differentiation, RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, and formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in vitro. Ginsenoside Re hampered osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. In an in vivo zebrafish model, aqueous ginseng extract and ginsenoside Re had anti-osteoclastogenesis effects. These findings suggest that both aqueous ginseng extract and ginsenoside Re prevent bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. Ginsenoside Re could be important for promoting bone health.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2016

    4 32 953

    Detecting Positive Selection of Korean Native Goat Populations Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    Wonseok Lee, Sojin Ahn, Mengistie Taye, Samsun Sung, Hyun-Jeong Lee, Seoae Cho, and Heebal Kim

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(12): 862-868 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0219
    Abstract

    Abstract : Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest species of domesticated animals. Native Korean goats are a particularly interesting group, as they are indigenous to the area and were raised in the Korean peninsula almost 2,000 years ago. Although they have a small body size and produce low volumes of milk and meat, they are quite resistant to lumbar paralysis. Our study aimed to reveal the distinct genetic features and patterns of selection in native Korean goats by comparing the genomes of native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations. We sequenced the whole genome of 15 native Korean goats and 11 crossbred goats using next-generation sequencing (Illumina platform) to compare the genomes of the two populations. We found decreased nucleotide diversity in the native Korean goats compared to the crossbred goats. Genetic structural analysis demonstrated that the native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations shared a common ancestry, but were clearly distinct. Finally, to reveal the native Korean goat’s selective sweep region, selective sweep signals were identified in the native Korean goat genome using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and a cross-population composite likelihood ratio test (XP-CLR). As a result, we were able to identify candidate genes for recent selection, such as the CCR3 gene, which is related to lumbar paralysis resistance. Combined with future studies and recent goat genome information, this study will contribute to a thorough understanding of the native Korean goat genome.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2016

    9 33 1092

    Cantharidin Overcomes Imatinib Resistance by Depleting BCR-ABL in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Xiaoyan Sun, Xueting Cai, Jie Yang, Jiao Chen, Caixia Guo, and Peng Cao

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(12): 869-876 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0023
    Abstract

    Abstract : Cantharidin (CTD) is an active compound isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine blister beetle and displayed anticancer properties against various types of cancer cells. However, little is known about its effect on human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells, including imatinib-resistant CML cells. The objective of this study was to investigate whether CTD could overcome imatinib resistance in imatinib-resistant CML cells and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms associated with the effect. Our results showed that CTD strongly inhibited the growth of both imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant CML cells. CTD induced cell cycle arrest at mitotic phase and triggered DNA damage in CML cells. The ATM/ATR inhibitor CGK733 abrogated CTD-induced mitotic arrest but promoted the cytotoxic effects of CTD. In addition, we demonstrated that CTD downregulated the expression of the BCR-ABL protein and suppressed its downstream signal transduction. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that CTD inhibited BCR-ABL at transcriptional level. Knockdown of BCR-ABL increased the cell-killing effects of CTD in K562 cells. These findings indicated that CTD overcomes imatinib resistance through depletion of BCR-ABL. Taken together, CTD is an important new candidate agent for CML therapy.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2016

    9 45 1061

    Tazarotene-Induced Gene 1 Enhanced Cervical Cell Autophagy through Transmembrane Protein 192

    Rong-Yaun Shyu, Chun-Hua Wang, Chang-Chieh Wu, Mao-Liang Chen, Ming-Cheng Lee, Lu-Kai Wang, Shun-Yuan Jiang, and Fu-Ming Tsai

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(12): 877-887 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0161
    Abstract

    Abstract : Tazarotene-induced gene 1 (TIG1) is a retinoic acid-inducible protein that is considered a putative tumor suppressor. The expression of TIG1 is decreased in malignant prostate carcinoma or poorly differentiated colorectal adenocarcinoma, but TIG1 is present in benign or well-differentiated tumors. Ectopic TIG1 expression led to suppression of growth in cancer cells. However, the function of TIG1 in cell differentiation is still unknown. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we found that transmembrane protein 192 (TMEM192) interacted with TIG1. We also found that both TIG1A and TIG1B isoforms interacted and co-localized with TMEM192 in HtTA cervical cancer cells. The expression of TIG1 induced the expression of autophagy-related proteins, including Beclin-1 and LC-3B. The silencing of TMEM192 reduced the TIG1-mediated upregulation of autophagic activity. Furthermore, silencing of either TIG1 or TMEM192 led to alleviation of the upregulation of autophagy induced by all-trans retinoic acid. Our results demonstrate that the expression of TIG1 leads to cell autophagy through TMEM192. Our study also suggests that TIG1 and TMEM192 play an important role in the all-trans retinoic acid-mediated upregulation of autophagic activity.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2016

    35 55 1449
    Abstract

    Abstract : Stable expression of Foxp3 is ensured by demethylation of CpG motifs in the Foxp3 intronic element, the conserved non-coding sequence 2 (CNS2), which persists throughout the lifespan of regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, little is known about the mechanisms on how CNS2 demethylation is sustained. In this study, we found that Ten-Eleven-Translocation (Tet) DNA dioxygenase protects the CpG motifs of CNS2 from re-methylation by DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) and prevents Tregs from losing Foxp3 expression under inflammatory conditions. Upon stimulation of Tregs by interleukin-6 (IL6), Dnmt1 was recruited to CNS2 and induced methylation, which was inhibited by Tet2 recruited by IL2. Tet2 prevented CNS2 re-methylation by not only the occupancy of the CNS2 locus but also by its enzymatic activity. These results show that the CNS2 methylation status is dynamically regulated by a balance between Tets and Dnmts which influences the expression of Foxp3 in Tregs.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2016

    14 39 1134

    Highly Expressed Integrin-α8 Induces Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition-Like Features in Multiple Myeloma with Early Relapse

    Jiyeon Ryu, Youngil Koh, Hyejoo Park, Dae Yoon Kim, Dong Chan Kim, Ja Min Byun, Hyun Jung Lee, and Sung-Soo Yoon

    Mol. Cells 2016; 39(12): 898-908 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2016.0210
    Abstract

    Abstract : Despite recent groundbreaking advances in multiple myeloma (MM) treatment, most MM patients ultimately experience relapse, and the relapse biology is not entirely understood. To define altered gene expression in MM relapse, gene expression profiles were examined and compared among 16 MM patients grouped by 12 months progression-free survival (PFS) after autologous stem cell transplantation. To maximize the difference between prognostic groups, patients at each end of the PFS spectrum (the four with the shortest PFS and four with the longest PFS) were chosen for additional analyses. We discovered that integrin-α8 (ITGA8) is highly expressed in MM patients with early relapse. The integrin family is well known to be involved in MM progression; however, the role of integrin-α8 is largely unknown. We functionally overexpressed integrin-α8 in MM cell lines, and surprisingly, stemness features including HIF1α, VEGF, OCT4, and Nanog, as well as epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related phenotypes, including N-cadherin, Slug, Snail and CXCR4, were induced. These, consequently, enhanced migration and invasion abilities, which are crucial to MM pathogenesis. Moreover, the gain of integrin-α8 expression mediated drug resistance against melphalan and bortezomib, which are the main therapeutic agents in MM. The cBioPortal genomic database revealed that ITGA8 have significant tendency to co-occur with PDGFRA and PDGFRB and their mRNA expression were up-regulated in ITGA8 overexpressed MM cells. In summary, integrin-α8, which was up-regulated in MM of early relapse, mediates EMT-like phenotype, enhancing migration and invasion; therefore, it could serve as a potential marker of MM relapse and be a new therapeutic target.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2016

    17 39 1305
    Abstract

    Abstract : Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical step in the acquisition of the migratory and invasive capabilities associated with metastatic competence. Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1/Cyr61) has been implicated as an important mediator in the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer. Hence, Cyr61 and associated pathways are attractive targets for therapeutic interventions directed against the EMT. In the present study, we report that baicalein significantly inhibits the expression of Cyr61 and migration and invasion of MDA-MB231 human breast cancer cells. Exposure to baicalein led to increased E-cadherin expression, possibly due to the ubiquitination of Snail and Slug, which was mediated by the Cyr61/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) pathway. Further analysis revealed that baicalein inhibited the expression of lysyl oxidase like-2 (LOXL-2), which is a functional collaborator of Snail and Slug, and subsequently attenuated the direct interaction between LOXL-2 and Snail or Slug, thereby enhancing GSK3β-dependent Snail and Slug degradation. Our findings provide new insights into the antimetastatic mechanism of baicalein and may contribute to its beneficial use in breast cancer therapies.

Mol. Cells
Nov 30, 2021 Vol.44 No.11
COVER PICTURE
3D quantitative images of the vesicular structure and the nucleolus using label free optical diffraction tomography (Kim et al., pp. 851-860).

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