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  • MinireviewDecember 31, 2015

    73 529 3018

    Peripheral Serotonin: a New Player in Systemic Energy Homeostasis

    Jun Namkung, Hail Kim, and Sangkyu Park

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(12): 1023-1028 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0258
    Abstract

    Abstract : Whole body energy balance is achieved through the coordinated regulation of energy intake and energy expenditure in various tissues including liver, muscle and adipose tissues. A positive energy imbalance by excessive energy intake or insufficient energy expenditure results in obesity and related metabolic diseases. Although there have been many obesity treatment trials aimed at the reduction of energy intake, these strategies have achieved only limited success because of their associated adverse effects. An ancient neurotransmitter, serotonin is among those traditional pharmacological targets for anti-obesity treatment because it exhibits strong anorectic effect in the brain. However, recent studies suggest the new functions of peripheral serotonin in energy homeostasis ranging from the endocrine regulation by gut-derived serotonin to the autocrine/paracrine regulation by adipocyte-derived serotonin. Here, we discuss the role of serotonin in the regulation of energy homeostasis and introduce peripheral serotonin as a possible target for anti-obesity treatment.

  • MinireviewDecember 31, 2015

    31 454 2087
    Abstract

    Abstract : Appropriate vessel development and its coordinated function is essential for proper embryogenesis and homeostasis in the adult. Defects in vessels cause birth defects and are an important etiology of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, tumor and diabetes retinopathy. The accumulative data indicate that ETV2, an ETS transcription factor, performs a potent and indispensable function in mediating vessel development. This review discusses the recent progress of the study of ETV2 with special focus on its regulatory mechanisms and cell fate determining role in developing mouse embryos as well as somatic cells.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2015

    11 353 1708

    TM-25659-Induced Activation of FGF21 Level Decreases Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in Skeletal Muscle via GCN2 Pathways

    Jong Gab Jung, Sang-A Yi, Sung-E Choi, Yup Kang, Tae Ho Kim, Ja Young Jeon, Myung Ae Bae, Jin Hee Ahn, Hana Jeong, Eun Sook Hwang, and Kwan-Woo Lee

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(12): 1037-1043 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0100
    Abstract

    Abstract : The TAZ activator 2-butyl-5-methyl-6-(pyridine-3-yl)-3-[2′-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl]-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine] (TM-25659) inhibits adipocyte differentiation by interacting with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. TM-25659 was previously shown to decrease weight gain in a high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. However, the fundamental mechanisms underlying the effects of TM-25659 remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of TM-25659 on skeletal muscle functions in C2 myotubes and C57BL/6J mice. We studied the molecular mechanisms underlying the contribution of TM-25659 to palmitate (PA)-induced insulin resistance in C2 myotubes. TM-25659 improved PA-induced insulin resistance and inflammation in C2 myotubes. In addition, TM-25659 increased FGF21 mRNA expression, protein levels, and FGF21 secretion in C2 myotubes via activation of GCN2 pathways (GCN2-phosphoeIF2α-ATF4 and FGF21). This beneficial effect of TM-25659 was diminished by FGF21 siRNA. C57BL/6J mice were fed a HF diet for 30 weeks. The HF-diet group was randomly divided into two groups for the next 14 days: the HF-diet and HF-diet + TM-25659 groups. The HF diet + TM-25659-treated mice showed improvements in their fasting blood glucose levels, insulin sensitivity, insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, and inflammation, but neither body weight nor food intake was affected. The HF diet + TM-25659-treated mice also exhibited increased expression of both FGF21 mRNA and protein. These data indicate that TM-25659 may be beneficial for treating insulin resistance by inducing FGF21 in models of PA-induced insulin resistance and HF diet-induced insulin resistance.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2015

    1 346 1101
    Abstract

    Abstract : This study first investigated the effects of corn gluten hydrolysate (CGH) (1.5 g/day) administration for 7 days on appetite-responsive genes in lean Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In a second set of experiments, the metabolic changes occurring at multiple time points over 8 weeks in response to CGH (35.33% wt/wt) were observed in high-fat (HF, 60% of energy as fat) diet-fed SD rats. In lean rats, the hypothalamus neuropeptide-Y and proopiomelanocortin mRNA levels of the CGH group were significantly changed in response to CGH administration. In the second part of the study, CGH treatment was found to reduce body weight and perirenal and epididymal fat weight. CGH also prevented an increase in food intake at 2 weeks and lowered plasma leptin and insulin levels in comparison with the HF group. This reduction in the plasma and hepatic lipid levels was followed by improved insulin resistance, and the beneficial metabolic effects of CGH were also partly related to increases in plasma adiponectin levels. The Homeostasis Model of Assessment - Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), an index of insulin resistance, was markedly improved in the HF-CGH group compared with the HF group at 6 weeks. According to the microarray results, adipose tissue mRNA expression related to G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway and sensory perception was significantly improved after 8 weeks of CGH administration. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that dietary CGH may be effective for improving hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese rats as well as appetite control in lean rats.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2015

    18 325 1430
    Abstract

    Abstract : Mitochondria play a crucial role in eukaryotic cells; the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) generates adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which serves as an energy source for numerous critical cellular activities. However, the ETC also generates deleterious reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a natural byproduct of oxidative phosphorylation. ROS are considered the major cause of aging because they damage proteins, lipids, and DNA by oxidation. We analyzed the chronological life span, growth phenotype, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and intracellular ATP and mitochondrial superoxide levels of 33 single ETC component-deleted strains during the chronological aging process. Among the ETC mutant strains, 14 (sdh1Δ, sdh2Δ, sdh4Δ, cor1Δ, cyt1Δ, qcr7Δ, qcr8Δ, rip1Δ, cox6Δ, cox7Δ, cox9Δ, atp4Δ, atp7Δ, and atp17Δ) showed a significantly shorter life span. The deleted genes encode important elements of the ETC components succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) and cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), and some of the deletions lead to structural instability of the membrane-F1F0-ATP synthase due to mutations in the stator stalk (complex V). These short-lived strains generated higher superoxide levels and produced lower ATP levels without alteration of MMP. In summary, ETC mutations decreased the life span of yeast due to impaired mitochondrial efficiency.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2015

    5 233 1218

    The 18-kDa Translocator Protein Inhibits Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression via Inhibition of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species

    Hee Kyoung Joo, Yu Ran Lee, Gun Kang, Sunga Choi, Cuk-Seong Kim, Sungwoo Ryoo, Jin Bong Park, and Byeong Hwa Jeon

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(12): 1064-1070 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0165
    Abstract

    Abstract : Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein and is abundantly expressed in a variety of organ and tissues. To date, the functional role of TSPO on vascular endothelial cell activation has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 250 nM), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), was used to induce vascular endothelial activation. Adenoviral TSPO overexpression (10?100 MOI) inhibited PMA-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in a dose dependent manner. PMA-induced VCAM-1 expressions were inhibited by Mito-TEMPO (0.1?0.5 μM), a specific mitochondrial antioxidants, and cyclosporin A (1?5 μM), a mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor, implying on an important role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the endothelial activation. Moreover, adenoviral TSPO overexpression inhibited mitochondrial ROS production and manganese superoxide dismutase expression. On contrasts, gene silencing of TSPO with siRNA increased PMA-induced VCAM-1 expression and mitochondrial ROS production. Midazolam (1?50 μM), TSPO ligands, inhibited PMA-induced VCAM-1 and mitochondrial ROS production in endothelial cells. These results suggest that mitochondrial TSPO can inhibit PMA-induced endothelial inflammation via suppression of VCAM-1 and mitochondrial ROS production in endothelial cells.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2015

    13 317 1246
    Abstract

    Abstract : Superovulation induced by exogenous gonadotropin treatment (PMSG/hCG) increases the number of available oocytes in humans and animals. However, Superovulatory PMSG/hCG treatment is known to affect maternal environment, and these effects may result from PMSG/hCG treatment-induced oxidative stress. 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prxs) act as antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from oxidative stress induced by various exogenous stimuli. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that repeated PMSG/hCG treatment induces 2-Cys Prx expression and overoxidation in the reproductive tracts of female mice. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analyses further demonstrated that, after PMSG/hCG treatment, the protein expression levels of 2-Cys Prxs increased most significantly in the ovaries, while that of Prx1 was most affected by PMSG/hCG stimulation in all tissues of the female reproductive tract. Repeated PMSG/hCG treatment eventually leads to 2-Cys Prxs overoxidation in all reproductive organs of female mice, and the abundance of the 2-Cys Prxs-SO2/3 proteins reported here supports the hypothesis that repeated superovulation induces strong oxidative stress and damage to the female reproductive tract. Our data suggest that excessive oxidative stress caused by repeated PMSG/hCG stimulation increases 2-Cys Prxs expression and overoxidation in the female reproductive organs. Intracellular 2-Cys Prx therefore plays an important role in maintaining the reproductive organ environment of female mice upon exogenous gonadotropin treatment.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2015

    3 175 708

    Change in the Gastro-Intestinal Tract by Overexpressed Activin Beta A

    Mi-Nyeu Kim, Young Il Kim, Chunghee Cho, Kelly E. Mayo, and Byung-Nam Cho

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(12): 1079-1085 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0189
    Abstract

    Abstract : Originally, activins were identified as stimulators of FSH release in reproduction. Other activities, including secondary axis formation in development, have since been revealed. Here, we investigated the influence of activin βA on the body, including the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract.Initially, the activin βA protein was detected in the serum proportional to the amount of pCMV-rAct plasmid injected. The induced level of activin βA in muscle was higher in female than male mice. Subsequent results revealed that stomach and intestine were severely damaged in pCMV-rAct-injected mice. At the cellular level, loss of parietal cells was observed, resulting in increased pH within the stomach. This phenomenon was more severe in male than female mice. Consistent with damage of the stomach and intestine, activin βA often led to necrosis in the tip of the tail or foot, and loss of body weight was observed in pCMV-rAct-injected male but not female mice. Finally, in pCMV-rAct-injected mice, circulating activin βA led to death at supraphysiological doses, and this was dependent on the strain of mice used.Taken together, these results indicate that activin βA has an important role outside of reproduction and development, specifically in digestion. These data also indicate that activin βA must be controlled within a narrow range because of latent lethal activity. In addition, our approach can be used effectively for functional analysis of secreted proteins.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2015

    8 259 868

    Crystal Structure and Comparative Sequence Analysis of GmhA from Colwellia psychrerythraea Strain 34H Provides Insight into Functional Similarity with DiaA

    Hackwon Do, Ji-Sook Yun, Chang Woo Lee, Young Jun Choi, Hye-Yeon Kim, Youn-Jung Kim, Hyun Park, Jeong Ho Chang, and Jun Hyuck Lee

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(12): 1086-1095 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0191
    Abstract

    Abstract : The psychrophilic organism Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H produces extracellular polysaccharide substances to tolerate cold environments. Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate isomerase (GmhA) is essential for producing d-glycero-d-mannoheptose 7-phosphate, a key mediator in the lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic pathway. We determined the crystal structure of GmhA from C. psychrerythraea strain 34H (CpsGmhA, UniProtKB code: Q47VU0) at a resolution of 2.8 ?. The tetrameric structure is similar to that of homologous GmhA structures. Interestingly, one of the catalytic residues, glutamate, which has been reported to be critical for the activity of other homologous GmhA enzymes, is replaced by a glutamine residue in the CpsGmhA protein. We also found differences in the conformations of several other catalytic residues. Extensive structural and sequence analyses reveal that CpsGmhA shows high similarity to Escherichia coli DnaA initiator-associating protein A (DiaA). Therefore, the CpsGmhA structure reported here may provide insight into the structural and functional correlations between GmhA and DiaA among specific microorganisms.

  • ArticleDecember 31, 2015

    33 381 1735

    Effects of the Particulate Matter2.5 (PM2.5) on Lipoprotein Metabolism, Uptake and Degradation, and Embryo Toxicity

    Jae-Yong Kim, Eun-Young Lee, Inho Choi, Jihoe Kim, and Kyung-Hyun Cho

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(12): 1096-1104 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0194
    Abstract

    Abstract : Particulate matter2.5 (PM2.5) is notorious for its strong toxic effects on the cardiovascular, skin, nervous, and reproduction systems. However, the molecular mechanism by which PM2.5 aggravates disease progression is poorly understood, especially in a water-soluble state. In the current study, we investigated the putative physiological effects of aqueous PM2.5 solution on lipoprotein metabolism. Collected PM2.5 from Seoul, Korea was dissolved in water, and the water extract (final 3 and 30 ppm) was treated to human serum lipoproteins, macrophages, and dermal cells. PM2.5 extract resulted in degradation and aggregation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) as well as low-density lipoprotein (LDL); apoA-I in HDL aggregated and apo-B in LDL disappeared. PM2.5 treatment (final 30 ppm) also induced cellular uptake of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) into macrophages, especially in the presence of fructose (final 50 mM). Uptake of oxLDL along with production of reactive oxygen species was accelerated by PM2.5 solution in a dose-dependent manner. Further, PM2.5 solution caused cellular senescence in human dermal fibroblast cells. Microinjection of PM2.5 solution into zebrafish embryos induced severe mortality accompanied by impairment of skeletal development. In conclusion, water extract of PM2.5 induced oxidative stress as a precursor to cardiovascular toxicity, skin cell senescence, and embryonic toxicity via aggregation and proteolytic degradation of serum lipoproteins.

Mol. Cells
Aug 31, 2022 Vol.45 No.8
COVER PICTURE
Cryo-EM structure of human porphyrin transporter ABCB6 (main figure) shows that binding of hemin (inset, magenta) in concert with two glutathione molecules (cyan) primes ABCB6 for high ATP turnover (Kim et al., pp. 575-587).

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