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  • MinireviewNovember 30, 2015

    4 586 2709

    Functions of TET Proteins in Hematopoietic Transformation

    Jae-A Han, Jungeun An, and Myunggon Ko

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(11): 925-935

    Abstract : DNA methylation is a well-characterized epigenetic modification that plays central roles in mammalian development, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation and silencing of retrotransposon elements. Aberrant DNA methylation pattern is a characteristic feature of cancers and associated with abnormal expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes or repair genes. Ten-eleven-translocation (TET) proteins are recently characterized dioxygenases that catalyze progressive oxidation of 5-methylcytosine to produce 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and further oxidized derivatives. These oxidized methylcytosines not only potentiate DNA demethylation but also behave as independent epigenetic modifications per se. The expression or activity of TET proteins and DNA hydroxymethylation are highly dysregulated in a wide range of cancers including hematologic and non-hematologic malignancies, and accumulating evidence points TET proteins as a novel tumor suppressor in cancers. Here we review DNA demethylation-dependent and -independent functions of TET proteins. We also describe diverse TET loss-of-function mutations that are recurrently found in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies and their potential roles in hematopoietic transformation. We discuss consequences of the deficiency of individual Tet genes and potential compensation between different Tet members in mice. Possible mechanisms underlying facilitated oncogenic transformation of TET-deficient hematopoietic cells are also described. Lastly, we address non-mutational mechanisms that lead to suppression or inactivation of TET proteins in cancers. Strategies to restore normal 5mC oxidation status in cancers by targeting TET proteins may provide new avenues to expedite the development of promising anti-cancer agents.

  • MinireviewNovember 30, 2015

    50 872 2201

    Synapsin Isoforms and Synaptic Vesicle Trafficking

    Sang-Ho Song, and George J. Augustine

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(11): 936-940

    Abstract : Synapsins were the first presynaptic proteins identified and have served as the flagship of the presynaptic protein field. Here we review recent studies demonstrating that different members of the synapsin family play different roles at presynaptic terminals employing different types of synaptic vesicles. The structural underpinnings for these functions are just beginning to be understood and should provide a focus for future efforts.

  • ArticleNovember 30, 2015

    7 515 1173

    Rocaglamide-A Potentiates Osteoblast Differentiation by Inhibiting NF-κB Signaling

    Aiguo Li, Libin Yang, Xiaolin Geng, Xingmei Peng, Tan Lu, Yanjun Deng, and Yuzheng Dong

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(11): 941-949

    Abstract : Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to bone and cartilage erosion. The inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by the inflammatory factor TNF-α is critical for the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. To modulate TNF-α mediated inhibition of osteoblast differentiation is required to improve therapeutic efficacy of rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we explored the potential role of rocaglamide-A, a component of Aglaia plant, in osteoblast differentiation. Rocaglamide-A prevented TNF-α mediated inhibition of osteoblast differentiation, and promoted osteoblast differentiation directly, in both C2C12 and primary mesenchymal stromal cells. Mechanistically, Rocaglamide-A inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB component p65 protein and the accumulation of p65 in nucleus, which resulted in the diminished NF-κB responsible transcriptional activity. Oppositely, overexpression of p65 reversed rocaglamide-A’s protective effects on osteoblast differentiation. Collectively, rocaglamide-A protected and stimulated osteoblast differentiation via blocking NF-κB pathway. It suggests that rocaglamide-A may be a good candidate to develop as therapeutic drug for rheumatoid arthritis associated bone loss diseases.

  • ArticleNovember 30, 2015

    10 583 1067

    Gain of a New Exon by a Lineage-Specific Alu Element-Integration Event in the BCS1L Gene during Primate Evolution

    Sang-Je Park, Young-Hyun Kim, Sang-Rae Lee, Se-Hee Choe, Myung-Jin Kim, Sun-Uk Kim, Ji-Su Kim, Bo-Woong Sim, Bong-Seok Song, Kang-Jin Jeong, Yeung-Bae Jin, Youngjeon Lee, Young-Ho Park, Young Il Park, Jae-Won Huh, and Kyu-Tae Chang

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(11): 950-958

    Abstract : BCS1L gene encodes mitochondrial protein and is a member of conserved AAA protein family. This gene is involved in the incorporation of Rieske FeS and Qcr10p into complex III of respiratory chain. In our previous study, AluYRa2-derived alternative transcript in rhesus monkey genome was identified. However, this transcript has not been reported in human genome. In present study, we conducted evolutionary analysis of AluYRa2-exonized transcript with various primate genomic DNAs and cDNAs from humans, rhesus monkeys, and crab-eating monkeys. Remarkably, our results show that AluYRa2 element has only been integrated into genomes of Macaca species. This Macaca lineage-specific integration of AluYRa2 element led to exonization event in the first intron region of BCS1L gene by producing a conserved 3′ splice site. Intriguingly, in rhesus and crab-eating monkeys, more diverse transcript variants by alternative splicing (AS) events, including exon skipping and different 5′ splice sites from humans, were identified. Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed that AluYRa2-exonized transcript has short N-terminal peptides. Therefore, AS events play a major role in the generation of various transcripts and proteins during primate evolution. In particular, lineage-specific integration of Alu elements and species-specific Alu-derived exonization events could be important sources of gene diversification in primates.

  • ArticleNovember 30, 2015

    1 379 942

    Abstract : Inducible and reversible gene silencing in desired types of cells is instrumental for deciphering gene functions using cultured cells or in vivo models. However, efficient conditional gene knockdown systems remain to be established. Here, we report the generation of an inducible expression system for short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeted to PTEN, a well-documented dual-specificity phosphatase involved in tumor suppression and ontogenesis. Upon induction by doxycycline (DOX), the reverse tetracycline transcriptional activator (rtTA) switched on the concomitant expression of GFP and a miR-30 precursor, the subsequent processing of which released the embedded PTEN-targeted shRNA. The efficacy and reversibility of PTEN knockdown by this construct was validated in normal and neoplastic cells, in which PTEN deficiency resulted in accelerated cell proliferation, suppressed apoptosis, and increased invasiveness. Transgenic mice harboring the conditional shRNA-expression cassette were obtained; GFP expression and concurrent PTEN silencing were observed upon ectopic expression of rtTA and induction with Dox. Therefore, this study provides novel tools for the precise dissection of PTEN functions and the generation of PTEN loss of function models in specific subsets of cells during carcinogenesis and ontogenesis.

  • ArticleNovember 30, 2015

    6 930 1134

    Abstract : Despite the presence of toll like receptor (TLR) expression in conventional TCRαβ T cells, the direct role of TLR signaling via myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) within T lymphocytes on graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) remains unknown. In the allo-SCT model of C57BL/6 (H-2b) → B6D2F1 (H-2b/d), recipients received transplants of wild type (WT) T-cell-depleted (TCD) bone marrow (BM) and splenic T cells from either WT or MyD88 deficient (MyD88KO) donors. Host-type (H-2d) P815 mastocytoma or L1210 leukemia cells were injected either subcutaneously or intravenously to generate a GVHD/GVL model. Allogeneic recipients of MyD88KO T cells demonstrated a greater tumor growth without attenuation of GVHD severity. Moreover, GVHD-induced GVL effect, caused by increasing the conditioning intensity was also not observed in the recipients of MyD88KO T cells. In vitro, the absence of MyD88 in T cells resulted in defective cytolytic activity to tumor targets with reduced ability to produce IFN-γ or granzyme B, which are known to critical for the GVL effect. However, donor T cell expansion with effector and memory T-cell differentiation were more enhanced in GVHD hosts of MyD88KO T cells. Recipients of MyD88KO T cells experienced greater expansion of Foxp3- and IL4-expressing T cells with reduced INF-γ producing T cells in the spleen and tumor-draining lymph nodes early after transplantation. Taken together, these results highlight a differential role for MyD88 deficiency on donor T-cells, with decreased GVL effect without attenuation of the GVHD severity after experimental allo-SCT.

  • ArticleNovember 30, 2015

    17 472 1930

    3D Light-Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy of Cranial Neurons and Vasculature during Zebrafish Embryogenesis

    Ok Kyu Park, Jina Kwak, Yoo Jung Jung, Young Ho Kim, Hyun-Seok Hong, Byung Joon Hwang, Seung-Hae Kwon, and Yun Kee

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(11): 975-981

    Abstract : Precise 3D spatial mapping of cells and their connections within living tissues is required to fully understand developmental processes and neural activities. Zebrafish embryos are relatively small and optically transparent, making them the vertebrate model of choice for live in vivo imaging. However, embryonic brains cannot be imaged in their entirety by confocal or two-photon microscopy due to limitations in optical range and scanning speed. Here, we use light-sheet fluorescence microscopy to overcome these limitations and image the entire head of live transgenic zebrafish embryos. We simultaneously imaged cranial neurons and blood vessels during embryogenesis, generating comprehensive 3D maps that provide insight into the coordinated morphogenesis of the nervous system and vasculature during early development. In addition, blood cells circulating through the entire head, vagal and cardiac vasculature were also visualized at high resolution in a 3D movie. These data provide the foundation for the construction of a complete 4D atlas of zebrafish embryogenesis and neural activity.

  • ArticleNovember 30, 2015

    27 611 1374

    Photoprotective Potential of Penta-O-Galloyl-β-D-Glucose by Targeting NF-κB and MAPK Signaling in UVB Radiation-Induced Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Mouse Skin

    Byung-Hak Kim, Mi Sun Choi, Hyun Gyu Lee, Song-Hee Lee, Kum Hee Noh, Sunho Kwon, Ae Jin Jeong, Haeri Lee, Eun Hee Yi, Jung Youl Park, Jintae Lee, Eun Young Joo, and Sang-Kyu Ye

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(11): 982-990

    Abstract : Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet radiation can cause skin damage with various pathological changes including inflammation. In the present study, we identified the skin-protective activity of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (pentagalloyl glucose, PGG) in ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced human dermal fibroblasts and mouse skin. PGG exhibited antioxidant activity with regard to intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation as well as ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging. Furthermore, PGG exhibited anti-inflammatory activity, inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, resulting in inhibition of the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. Topical application of PGG followed by chronic exposure to UVB radiation in the dorsal skin of hairless mice resulted in a significant decrease in the progression of inflammatory skin damages, leading to inhibited activation of NF-κB signaling and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. The present study demonstrated that PGG protected from skin damage induced by UVB radiation, and thus, may be a potential candidate for the prevention of environmental stimuli-induced inflammatory skin damage.

  • ArticleNovember 30, 2015

    23 594 1201

    Resveratrol Induces Glioma Cell Apoptosis through Activation of Tristetraprolin

    Jinhyun Ryu, Nal Ae Yoon, Hyemin Seong, Joo Yeon Jeong, Seokmin Kang, Nammi Park, Jungil Choi, Dong Hoon Lee, Gu Seob Roh, Hyun Joon Kim, Gyeong Jae Cho, Wan Sung Choi, Jae-Yong Park, Jeong Woo Park, and Sang Soo Kang

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(11): 991-997

    Abstract : Tristetraprolin (TTP) is an AU-rich elements (AREs)-binding protein, which regulates the decay of AREs-containing mRNAs such as proto-oncogenes, anti-apoptotic genes and immune regulatory genes. Despite the low expression of TTP in various human cancers, the mechanism involving suppressed expression of TTP is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene, Res), a naturally occurring compound, induces glioma cell apoptosis through activation of tristetraprolin (TTP). Res increased TTP expression in U87MG human glioma cells. Res-induced TTP destabilized the urokinase plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor mRNAs by binding to the ARE regions containing the 3′ untranslated regions of their mRNAs. Furthermore, TTP induced by Res suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis in the human glioma cells. Because of its regulation of TTP expression, these findings suggest that the bioactive dietary compound Res can be used as a novel anti-cancer agent for the treatment of human malignant gliomas.

  • ArticleNovember 30, 2015

    8 550 1417

    Blockade of Retinol Metabolism Protects T Cell-Induced Hepatitis by Increasing Migration of Regulatory T Cells

    Young-Sun Lee, Hyon-Seung Yi, Yang-Gun Suh, Jin-Seok Byun, Hyuk Soo Eun, So Yeon Kim, Wonhyo Seo, Jong-Min Jeong, Won-Mook Choi, Myung-Ho Kim, Ji Hoon Kim, Keun-Gyu Park, and Won-Il Jeong

    Mol. Cells 2015; 38(11): 998-1006

    Abstract : Retinols are metabolized into retinoic acids by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (Raldh). However, their roles have yet to be clarified in hepatitis despite enriched retinols in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Therefore, we investigated the effects of retinols on Concanavalin A (Con A)-mediated hepatitis.Con A was injected into wild type (WT), Raldh1 knock-out (Raldh1?/?), CCL2?/? and CCR2?/? mice. For migration study of regulatory T cells (Tregs), we used in vivo and ex vivo adoptive transfer systems. Blockade of retinol metabolism in mice given 4-methylpyrazole, an inhibitor of ADH, and ablated Raldh1 gene manifested increased migration of Tregs, eventually protected against Con A-mediated hepatitis by decreasing interferon-γ in T cells. Moreover, interferon-γ treatment increased the expression of ADH3 and Raldh1, but it suppressed that of CCL2 and IL-6 in HSCs. However, the expression of CCL2 and IL-6 was inversely increased upon the pharmacologic or genetic ablation of ADH3 and Raldh1 in HSCs. Indeed, IL-6 treatment increased CCR2 expression of Tregs. In migration assay, ablated CCR2 in Tregs showed reduced migration to HSCs. In adoptive transfer of Tregs in vivo and ex vivo, Raldh1-deficient mice showed more increased migration of Tregs than WT mice. Furthermore, inhibited retinol metabolism increased survival rate (75%) compared with that of the controls (25%) in Con A-induced hepatitis.These results suggest that blockade of retinol metabolism protects against acute liver injury by increased Treg migration, and it may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to control T cell-mediated acute hepatitis.

Mol. Cells
Sep 30, 2023 Vol.46 No.9, pp. 527~572
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is marked by airspace enlargement (emphysema) and small airway fibrosis, leading to airflow obstruction and eventual respiratory failure. Shown is a microphotograph of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained histological sections of the enlarged alveoli as an indicator of emphysema. Piao et al. (pp. 558-572) demonstrate that recombinant human hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1 (rhHAPLN1) significantly reduces the extended airspaces of the emphysematous alveoli by increasing the levels of TGF-β receptor I and SIRT1/6, as a previously unrecognized mechanism in human alveolar epithelial cells, and consequently mitigates COPD.


Molecules and Cells

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